Regional Integration in Asia.docx

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Department
International Affairs
Course
INR 3933r
Professor
Dale Smith
Semester
Spring

Description
Regional Integration in Asia 04/02/2014 APEC (1989) ▯ not the oldest, but the biggest ASEAN (1967) TPP (2005/2011)  FTAAP (Free Trade Area in the Asian Pacific) ▯ doesn’t exist, but is an idea APEC: Asia­Pacific Economic Cooperation Founded in 1989 by Australia, Brunel, Canada, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, the  Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, & the US 1991­98: China, Hong Kong, Chinese Taipei, Mexico, Papua New Guinea, Chile, Peru, Russia, & Viet Nam Total: 21 IGO focused on economics and business cooperation with annual meetings Three pillars: trade and investment liberalization; business facilitation; economic/technical cooperation  Not an FTA or RIA…just an IGO (Intergovernmental organization) ASEAN: Association of Southeast Asian Nations Origins 1967: Bangkok Declaration signed by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand Real concern of these countries was communism  Why these countries at this time? Nation building Common fear of communism Economic development Diminished role of the great powers Constrain Indonesian power  Early years are focused on political and security issues Much more concerned w/ Indo­China wars rather than economic issues “Cooperation” not “integration” Why So Little Progress in First 30 Years? Very different economic policies Singapore was the only really “open economy” in the beginning, the rest were ISI (domestic production) Recent colonial history (except for Thailand) made nation­building a priority. Protecting infant industries The Intra­ASEAN market was too small to be consequential for these countries. All dependent on extra­ regional sources for capital and technology  ASEAN Enlargement 1984: Brunel Darussalam (Immediately after independence) 1995: Vietnam 1997: Laos and Myanmar 1999: Cambodia ASEAN 10 Why enlarge? Rationalist v. Constructivist explanations These were countries devastated by the Vietnam war Constructivist would be that they are similar, part of the same part of the world, kinship Three “communities”: Political, economic, and socio­cultural  AFTA: ASEAN Free Trade Area Signed in 1992 Each new member of ASEAN must join AFTA Goals: Make ASEAN more globally competitive by reducing tariffs and non­tariff barriers Attract FDI Why 1992? End of Cold War and Indo­China wars weakened its political/security underpinning so shifts toward free  trade Original members had begun to open up economically Growth of production networks and intra­ind
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