FOS4209-Biological Hazards Part 1 Lecture Notes .docx

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Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences
DIE 4310
Jenice Rankins

FOS4209: Biological Hazards Part I  4 Types of Biological Hazards: o Bacteria o Virus o Parasites o Mold & Yeast  Bacteria: o Food Infection:  L. monocytogenes  Salmonella species  Shigella species  Streptococcus pyogenes  Yersinia enterocolitica o Food Intoxication:  Clostridium botulinum  Clostridium perfringes  Bacillus cereus  Staphylococcus aureus o Food Intoxification:  Campylobacter jejuni  Vibrio cholera  Escherichia coli  Vibrio parahaemolyticus  Vibrio vulnificus  The Big 7 foodborne bacteria: o Campylobacter  16 species and 6 sub species – most frequently reported in foodborne diseases is C. jejuni  most species prefer a micro-aerobic environment  at temperature of a bird  Onset of disease occurs 2-5 days after infection, but can range 1-10 days  Affects children under 5 and young adults 15-29  Affects more males than females  Doesn’t commonly cause death, but estimated 124 persons with campylobacter infections die each year  Symptoms: diarrhea, abdominal pains, fever, headache, nausea, and/or vomiting and abortion  Complications: bacteremia, hepatitis and pancreatitis (infections of the blood, liver and pancrease, respectively)  Post-infection: arthritis, neurological disorders like guillain barre syndrome  Main route: undercooked meats and meat products and also raw or contaminated milk. Also, ingestion of contaminated water or ice also represents source of infection  Considered a zoonosis  Disease transmitted to humans from animals or animal products  Prevention: cook all poultry products thoroughly to reach a minimum internal temp of 165 F  Wash hands  Prevent cross-contamination  Don’t consume unpasteurized milk and untreated water o Salmonella  2500 known types  S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidi are most common  Discovered by Dadniel E. Salmon 1885  Symptoms: 12-72 hours after infection  Illness lasts 4-7 days most recover without treatment  Elderly, infants, and persons with impaired immune systems most severe illness  Symptoms: fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and sometimes vomiting  Complications:  Reiter’s syndrome- pain in joints, irritated eyes, and painful urination (lasts for months or years and can result in arthritis)  Typhoid fever- serious disease can be fatal  Source: lives in IT of humans and animals, including birds  Transmitted: by consuming foods contaminated with animal feces  Contaminated foods usually of animal origin beef, poultry, milk, eggs (also tomatoes and green vegetables)  Also can be contaminated by infected food handler who fails to wash hands  Prevention: cook poultry, beef and eggs thoroughly  Avoid foods with raw eggs or raw milk  Wash hands, surfaces, utensils, etc. o Shigella o E. Coli  Recognized in 1982 following an outbreak in the US  Large and diverse group of bacteria  Most strains are harmless and other can cause sickness  Sickness by producing a toxin called Shiga Toxin  Most commonly identified STEC in north America  Jack in the Box: (1993) 400 people sick and 3 children died due to E. Coli from undercooked ground meets (hamburger meat)  Cost $20-30 million  Symptoms: abdominal cramps and diarrhea, fever and vomiting, can range from 3-8 days but usually is 3-4 days (most patients recover in 10 days)  Complications: life threatening disease called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) o Acute renal failure, fatality rate 3-5% usually in young children and can cause neurological complications like seizure, stroke, or coma in 25% of HUS patients  Source: mainly cattle and other ruminants like camels, sheeps, and goats  Transmitted: eating contaminated food, fecal contamination of water or foods, and cross- con
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