FOS4209- Chemical and physical food hazards.docx

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Department
Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences
Course
FOS 4209
Professor
Arturo Figueroa
Semester
Fall

Description
FOS4209: Chemical and Physical Food Hazards  Chemical Hazards: o 3 categories:  naturally occurring toxins  mycotoxins, shellfish, and seafood toxins, food allergens  intentionally added  preservatives  Incidental or unintentionally added  Drug residues, pesticide residues, unapproved food and color additives, cleaning compounds and sanitizers commonly used in the processing facility o Naturally occurring toxins  Mycotoxins  Are toxic metabolites produced by fungi on foodstuffs or animal feed that are capable of causing disease and death in humands and animals o Myco  fungus and toxin  poison  Mycotoxicoses is the disease caused by mycotoxins  Specific molds produce one or more toxins usually in one specific kind of commodity or feed  Examples o Aflatoxins – corn  Poisoning resulting from ingestion of aflatoxins in contaminated food or feed  A group of structurally related toxic compounds produced by certain strains of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus  Four major aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1, and G2  Aflatoxin B1 is usually predominant and most toxic (most potent carcinogen known)  Effects of aflatoxins:  Vomiting, abdominal pain, pulmonary edema, convulsions, coma, death with cerebral edema and fatty involvement of the liver, kidneys, and heart, liver cancer  How to prevent aflatoxicosis:  Crop rotation  Irrigation to prevent drought stress  Control of weeds and insects  Cultivation of mold-resistant stocks  Rapid drying after harvesting  Avoid damaged kernels by sorting  Appropriate moisture content during storage  Detoxification and decontamination using chemical methods o Fumonisin – common grain mold o Ochratoxins – produced by aspergillus and penicillium molds  Associated foods:  Contamination occurs during production, harvest, storage, or processing  Agricultural commodities with the high risk of aflatoxin contamination are: corn, peanuts, and cottonseed  High moisture content or stored in high humidity  Other grains and nuts are susceptible but less prone to contamination  Milk, eggs, and meat products are occasionally contaminated due to the consumption of aflatoxin- contaminated feed by animals  INTENTIONALLY ADDED: o In most cases, intentional addition of these chemicals to food isn’t to cause harm, but to defraud for financial gain. o Sudan Dyes:  Sudan I-IV = synthetic azo dyes  Used to color products like show polish, automotive paints, and petroleum derivatives  Not permitted food colors  They are recognized as carcinogens  They are added to foods such as palm oil and chili powder  Have been found in chili powders imported from India as well as other products containing this chili powder  Toxic effect: o Cancer-causing effect o Genotoxic effect (cause damage to the DNA) o Melamine:  Is synthetic chemical  Used in the production of resins and foams, cleaning products, fertilizers and pesticides  Not allowed to be used as a food ingredient  Fraudulently added o food product to make the food to appear to have more protein due to its high nitrogen content  Pet food in the USA as found to be causing kidney disease and death in cats and dogs  Caused by melamine and a related chemical, cyanuric acid  Added to powdered milk and grain products in China, white rabbit creamy candies, Mr.Brown iced coffee  Effect of exposure to melamine:  Low levels of melamine produced no observable toxic effects  High levels of melamine causes urinary tract and kidney crystal and stone formation, and kidney failure  High levels of melamine over long time periods (years) have been associated with cancer of the bladder  Toxic mushrooms  100 species are poisonous  15-20 are lethal when ingested  95% of cases are misidentification  can
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