FOS4209-Biological Hazards Part II Lecture Notes.docx

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Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences
FOS 4209
Arturo Figueroa

FOS4209: Biological Hazards Part II  Viruses o All foodborne viruses are transmitted via the oral-fecal route o Contamination of food:  Infected handler during food prep  Sewage sludge  Polluted water o The incubation period for foodborne viral illness is usually several weeks  Viral particles invade host cells and replicate  Two of the most common viruses known to cause foodborne diseases are hepatitis A virus and Norwalk virus (Norovirus) o Survival characteristics of foodborne illnesses  Resistant to acidic conditions (pH 3)  Survive on acid fruits like strawberries, raspberries, and in processes like pickling in vinegar or yogurt production.  Also resistant to alcohol and high sugar concentrations  Hardy and may survive for prolonged periods in foods or the food handling env’t  Can persist in aquatic environments  Highly resistant to chilling, freezing, preservatives and ionizing radiation. o Hepatitis A virus and norovirus have both been shown to survive 60 C for 10 minutes  Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) o Agent:  Belongs to picronaviridae family of viruses  Used to be called infectious hepatitis, epidemic hepatitis, epidemic jaundice, botkins disease and MS- 1 hepatitis  Mainly spread by person to person transmission but can be spread by food handlers o Nature of disease:  Incubation period varies from 10-50 days (mean 30 days)  Mild illness characterized by sudden onset of fever, malaise, nausea, anorexia, and abdominal discomfort, several days by jaundice, and recovery complete in 1- 2 weeks  Infectious dose not known but about 10-100 virus particles assumed o Frequency of disease:  28% of cases of Hepatitis A annually  less than .4% are fatal o Associated foods:  Cold cuts, fruits, fruit juices, milk and milk products, veggies, salads, shellfish, and iced drinks are commonly implicated  Most frequent: water, shellfish, and salads o Control:  Cultivation of shellfish in clean water  Heat treatment to an internal temp. of 85-90 C  Thorough handwashing with soam and warm water  Avoid cross-contamination  Avoid consumption of uncooked mollusks such as oysters o Prevention:  Vaccines available for long-term prevention in persons 1 year of age and older  3 injection series o seen in Mexican strawberries (1997)  Norwalk Virus o Agent: norovirus, caliciviruses or small round structured viruses (first recognized as a pathogen in ohio 1968) o Nature of disease: onset 24-48 hours after eating contaminated food or water o Names: stomach flu, viral, acute gastroenteritis, non- bacterial gastroenteritis, and calicivirus infection o Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, low-grade fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, and a general sense of tiredness. Recovery in 1-2 days o Associated foods:  Shellfish and salad ingredients are the food most implicated (ingestion of raw or not properly steamed clam or oysters) or contaminated by food handlers o Norovirus and cruise ships  Water is most common source of outbreaks o Treatment: no vaccine to prevent o No drug to treat people who are infected o Control:  Wash hands frequently, carefully wash fruits and veggies, and steam oysters before eating, clean and disinfect contaminated surfaces, remove and wash clothing or linens that have been contaminated  Avian influenza Virus o Agent: caused by bird flu viruses o Also known as H5N1 virus o 2 forms of disease in poultry:  low pathogenic forms (may go undetected and usually only causes mild symptoms)  Highly pathogenic form (spreads rapidly, may cause disease that affects multiple organs, has a mortality rate that can reach 90-100% often within 48 hours o Human infection:  Resulted from having direct or close contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces o Disease: fever, cough, sore throat, muscle aches, eye infections, pneumonia, severe respiratory diseases and other severe and life-threatening complications o Precautions:  All parts of poultry should be fully cooked (at least 70 C in all parts of the food)  For meat no pink parks and for eggs no runny yolks  Avoid cross-contamination  No juices from raw poultry to come in contact with foods that you are eating raw  Wash hands thoroughly and clean and disinfect surfaces  Bird flu isn’t transmitted thru c
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