FOS4209 First lecture notes.docx
FOS4209 First lecture notes.docx

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Florida State University
Nutrition, Food and Exercise Sciences
FOS 4209
Arturo Figueroa

FOS4209: Food Safety and Quality  Introduction  Food Quality: o Attributes of the food that makes it acceptable to consumers or factors that the consumer looks for in choosing a food or food product o Nutritional aspects:  Essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, proteins, vitamins, minerals, fibers o Sensory  Color, texture, size flavor, taste o Freshness, convenience o Ecological aspects:  Recyclability of being able to package material, pollution hazards o Factors affecting food quality: 1. Food spoilage 2. Adulteration and/or contamination 3. Mislabeling/misbranding 4. Food safety o Food Spoilage (#1)  Food spoilage – an undesirable change in food’s normal state that affects the quality of the food. Such changes are detected by smell, taste, touch or sight.  Factors that increase chances of food spoilage: o Air (oxygen exposure)  Enhance the growth of microorganisms  Bacteria (aerobes), molds and most yeast require O2 to grow  Cause degradation of food constituents with the help of natural oxidizing enzymes in food (catalase, peroxidase, polyphenol oxidase) like browning of diced fruits  Cause oxidation of fats, pigments, vitamins, flavors, etc. o Moisture gain/loss  Water is essential to all foods  Free water vs bound water  Relative humidity of the environment affects the keeping quality of food (moisture loss or gain)  Moisture can condense on surface of a product  Loss of moisture  Chemical reactions: The moisture in food allows chemical reactions to occur between components in the product (as a solvent, reactant)  Moisture in foods encourages growth of microorganisms  Water in food is controlled by dehydration, concentration, evaporation, freezing, or food additives o Light  Photo degradation of food constituents, such as fats, proteins, vitamins, and pigments, results in discoloration, off- flavor development and vitamin losses.  In solids= light only on the outer layer (surface)  In Liquids= light penetration is greater and larger portion of the food may be deteriorated  Light sensitivity of a food depends on:  Light source strength and type of light that it emits  Distance from the light source  Length of exposure  Optical properties of the packaging materials  Oxygen concentration of the food  Temperature  Lights from sunlight outdoors, incandescent lamps (in coolers and storage), fluorescent lamps (in food processing areas), germicidal lamps (used for walk in coolers), black lights (to detect presence of insects, rodent excretions, and other contaminants in food.  To protect against this use:  Opaque packaging or something to screen out light  Selection of storage area (dark refrigerator/no glass doors) o Temperature  Excessive heat will increase the rate of natural food enzyme reactions and other chemical reactions of food constituents such as protein denaturation, vitamin loss, dryness, etc.  Every rise in 18 F within the modest temperate range of 50-100 F the rate of chemical reaction is almost DOUBLED  Shelf life of milk is cut in half for ever 5 F rise in temperature over 45  Uncontrolled cold temperature will cause physical deterioration  Emulsions break down  Skins & surfaces of products will crack so its more sus
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