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Lecture 11

PUP 3002 Lecture 11: Chapter 8: Education - Part 2/2

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Political Science
PUP 3002

PUP3002 Professor Barrilleaux Florida State University Chapter 8 Lecture Notes (Part 2/2) Education I. Education E. Delegation Problems in Public Schools 1. Public schools are expected to fulfill multiple roles a. Surrogate parents b. Public safety officers c. Also… teach children (and more) 2. While we invest a lot in students ($10,560 on average), education quality is dwindling a. This may be due to the number of roles schools play b. When they address non-education issues, their ability to do their primary job decreases a. Principal agent problems in educational performance 1. Governments have preferences about education 2. They hire teachers to carry out their preferences 3. Teachers have their own preferences 4. How do governments coerce teachers into doing what they want? 5. Scenario a. Principal 1. A legislator 2. Preferred policy= L b. Agent 1. A teacher 2. Preferred policy = B c. If L passes Statute 2 leads to B Selects R1 1. L’s loss = R1-L 2. B’s loss = B-R1 d. If L passes Statute 1 leads to B Selects B 1. L’s loss = B-L Statue 2 Statue 1 L R1 B R2 e. “if the legislator suffers a loss under both of these statures, which allow the teacher discretion, then why not author a statute that grants the teacher zero discretion? 1. Such a statute would clearly force the teacher to locate policy at L f. Policy uncertainty 1. The uncertainty that exists between a policy output and its outcomes is referred to as policy uncertainty 2. Teachers better know how outputs become outcomes work g. Adding uncertainty 1. X = Output; Y = Outcome 2. In this case, 1 unit less education is provided 3. If the legislator believes she is living in the world where outcomes are delivered one unit to the left of the policy, then she would want the bureaucrat to deliver policy at1x . 4. To provide the bureaucrat with enough discretion to pursue policy at 1 , however, the legislature must adopt statute 1 that allows enough discretion to pursue policy at 1 . 5. If the legislator was wrong in her belief about the world and policy it is actually delivered where it is produced then bureaucrat can simply pursue their own preferred policy at B, which would generate a policy loss for the legislator (B-L) 6. Now imagine that the legislator believes that there is no difference between adopted policy and their outcomes. a. Then she would want the bureaucrat to deliver policy at a point that would yield the policy outcome y 1 7. If the legislator was wrong in her belief about the world and policy is actually delivered 1-unit to the left & the teacher adopts x 2 then the actual policy outcome will be y 2 F. The Push for Early Childhood Education a. Head start 1. Created by LBJ administration (1965) 2. Gives preschool training for the children of people who live at or below the poverty line 3. Little evidence showing it’s direct effectiveness, though spillover reports may be present b. Pre-kindergarten expansions 1. The state of Oklahoma created universal pre-kin
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