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Lecture 4

Lecture 4-Influence of Micro-contexts & Macro-contexts on Personality- Part II.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PPE 3003
Professor
Adam Johnson
Semester
Spring

Description
January 21, 2014 The Influence of Micro­contexts &Macro­contexts on Personality: Part II A 3  important dimension of culture: our place in the social structure—rewards that are  seemingly available to us o Power Distance (hierarchy): research in the 1960’s—Dutch, Hostettler look at  broad culture dimensions, or how cultures get their beliefs o “High Power Distance”—cultures encouraging people to accept and actively  recognize differences in power o When objectively measuring power, the US comes up near the lower end of the  power distance, whereas in more collectivist countries there is a higher power  distance o This is due to the difference in “Deference to” or ‘Challenging of’ authority/elders • Ex: Talking back to or disobeying parents o Differences in rules of formality/politeness in addressing ohers • Ex: a student properly e­mailing their professor o Difference in social mobility and acceptance of one’s ‘rightful place’ (e.g. don’t  make waves) • Influences values of obedience as a desirable trait o Differences in strict adherence to gender roles o Shows up in research (1985): Argyle Study—study  in which researchers looked  at rules in different relationships • Parents, friends, romantic partners, bosses, teachers, co­workers, priests,  aunts • Participants were recruited from four different cultures • Participants rated importance of each rule in the relationship • Participants from Japan and Hong Kong tended to more strongly endorse  obedience rules than participantsfrom both Britian and Italy for: 1. Pupils 2. Wives 3. Work subordinates (formal vs. informal language when speaking) 4. Siblings 5. Doctor­patient relationships • There is less opportunity because of the innovation in America. We may  think of us as respectful, yet these ideas become internalized. o The Golden Rule: The highly endorsed rule in all 22 relationship types for all  countries was that • We should  respect the other’s privacy Social Structure (i.e. hierarchy) as a Macro­context: Even within other cultures, the  degree of heiracrchy and inequality are an important part of one’s environment o Dominant social groups tend to enjoy a large share of positive social value Positive Social value Negative Social Value Material resources Scarce or inferior resources Wealth Undesirable housing Plentiful & desirable food Less desirable food Good housing Dangerous or disasterous work Health care Underemployment Political power o Societies vary greatly in the severity of grou­based
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