PSB2000 Synapse.docx

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PSB 2000
Stacey Mc Callister

Synapse 1. Neurotransmitters: inactivation and removal a. Why necessary? i. Enzymatic degradation (inactivation) 1. Specific enzyme breaks down 2. Inactivates 3. Takes time and can interrupt transmission ii. Reuptake by presynaptic neuron (transporters-MB proteins) 1. Not broken down (active form) 2. Recycled iii. Diffuses away from synaptic cleft (no longer bind receptor) 1. Broken down into inactive form 2. Washes away in urine, blood iv. Absorbed by surround glial cells 2. Neurotransmitters: Negative Feedback Loop a. Presynaptic neurons: i. Autoreceptors: receptors that are sensitive to same NT release ii. Detect amount of NT released and inhibit further synthesis b. Postsynaptic neurons: i. Releases specific chemicals that travel back to the presynaptic terminal ii. Inhibit further release of transmitter 3. Neurotransmitters: types, synthesis, effects a. Types: Aminos acids (some form) i. Monoamines, peptides, purines 1. Exception of some gases (Nitrous oxide) b. Places of synthesis i. Larger = cell body ii. Smaller = presynaptic terminal c. Effects i. Inhibitory or excitatory ii. Signaling pathways with cells d. Receptor types i. Ionotropic and metabotropic ii. Multiple ionotropic and multiple metabotropic receptors for each NT 4. Common Neurotransmitters a. Glutamate + i. Most common excitatory NT b. GABA – i. Most common inhibitory NT c. Acetylcholine (Ach) d. Dopamine (DA)
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