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PSB 2000 (92)


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PSB 2000
Orenda Johnson

Hormonal Communication -Widespread, released into blood vessels and travel throughout the entire body and when they come across a cell with a receptor, they will react to it -Endocrine cell, makes and releases hormones into the blood -Target cell, has the receptor and if affected -Released from a terminal to affect one cell or released into the blood to have a more widespread effect Peptide Hormones -Come from brain, pituitary, lots of organs -Generally in metabatropic receptors, the lygand or hormone binds to the receptor which initiates event inside the cell Steroid Hormones -Come from the gonads, testes and ovaries or adrenal cortex -Lipid molecules and can go through the membrane of the target cells and can act on receptors within the cell or even within the nucleus of a cell -Can go to the nucleus and affect gene transcription -Pineal makes melatonin Time of day can affect hormone release -Physiological and environmental factors affect hormone release -Hypothalamus and pituitary gland, hypothalamus controls hormone release by pituitary gland Pituitary Gland -Has different types of cells -Anterior & Posterior Anterior -Hypothalamus makes releasing hormones which are sent to the pituitary and then the ant. pituitary releases hormones -Makes its own hormones controlled by hypothalamus -secreted when hypothalamus releases releasing hormones -ACTH, release that stimulates the adrenal cortex -Prolactin stimulates the mamory grams for milk -Growth hormone, stimulates growth throughout the body -Gonadatrophins act on the gonads specifically on ovary production of estrogen and progesterone -Released when a releasing hormone is sent into the ant. by the hypothalamus -Negative feedback, some cue causes pituitary to release hormones and when there's enough it feedbacks and turns of stimulation Posterior -Doesn't make its own hormones, releases oxytocin and vassopressin which are made in the hypothalamus -Oxytocin important for uteran contractions and milk production -Vassoprocin also called ADH Homeostasis -Optimum level of functioning for parts of the body -Temperature, water balance, temperature balance, heart rate -Set Point: specific number for each measure, an optimum body temp. heart rate, concentration of solutes -^Controlled by negative feedback -Difference between homeostasis and allostasis -You may have optimum blood pressure and heart range but there is a range depending on the particular circumstances -Homeostasis is number for best functioning but there's a larger range based on current circumstances Controlling Body Temperature -Homeothermic, warm blooded mammals,use internal mechanisms to keep body temperature to a specific range regardless of environmental factors -Requires a lot of energy, energy consuming process, -sweat, pant, increase blood flow through skin -shiver, decrease blood flow to skin -Warm: -More warm than cool is good for being ready for vigorous muscle activity -Too hot becomes really bad, but we maintain body temperature closer to too hot than to too cold Cool: -Proteins fall apart when your too hot -Sperm requires lower temperatures to be healthy and functional -Maintained by the hypothalamus, all aspects of homeostasis -Isn't just one structure there's a bunch of different parts that are complex that do different jobs -Some nuclei are important for cooling you off and some important for warming you up -Posterior hypothalamus detects when your cold and warms you up -Anterior hypothalamus detects when your hot and cools you down -Anterior part of hypothalamus has neurons that are directly warm sensitive and if too warm initiates physiological things to cool you off -Receive input from thermoreceptors in skin Fever -Hypothalamus changing your set point -Normally tells you to maintain 98.6, when you have a fever which is caused by virus initiates immune response which results in production of cytokines which signal the brain using the vagus nerve specifically the hypothalamus -Hypothalamus then changes set point -When you first get a fever you feel cold because 98.6 is no longer normal it's cold -When your fever breaks you feel hot and your sweating and your hypothalamus changes its mind to go back to 98.6 Why? -Some bacteria grow less vigorously in a hotter body temperature -ENhances activity of the immune system -Makes you achy so that you rest and your energy can be used for healing -Good for you but can be dangerous, over 103 more harm than good a
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