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Lecture

Development, Pasticity and Brain Damage.docx

3 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSB 2000
Professor
Orenda Johnson

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Statutes -Recognize that infants and toddlers need education and care because their brains are developing ant a normal rapid rate Development of the Brain -Brain isn't fully developed at birth -Different parts of the brain develop at different times -Significant brain growth during childhood -The environment modulates this development Object Permanence (Piaget): Prefrontal cortex, this occurs around 7.5 months to a year (Goldman-Racik) where the child recognizes that an object is there even when it is being covered Before Birth (Prenatal Development) -Dorsal surface of the embryo thickens and developed a neural plate then the neural groove which fuse into neural tubes -This tube then becomes the CNS and the cavity within it becomes the ventricular system Brain Development -Differentiation of major regions of the brain -Expansion of forebrain, the cortex -Different parts of the brain are starting to form and develop What do neurons do in brain development? Kind of in this order with an overlap 1. Proliferation: Division of new cells, going to develop initially within the walls of the ventricles 2. Differentiation: When they decide which kind of cell they want to become, a neuron or a glial cell Progenitor cells get to choose, Neuroblast or Glioblast then further differentiates 3. Migration: Develop initially within walls of ventricles but then migrate out to different parts of the developing brain 4. Myelination: Occurs within the first years of life 5. Synapse formation: Where they form connections with each other, critically important because the neurons that don't form strong connections are not likely to make it within the development process 6. Pruning: Some neurons that don't form good connections, we just get rid of them because we make more than enough Malformations can be caused by (A) defective migration or -Heterotopias, gray matter that shouldn't be there, cells never properly migrated, nuclei of cells embedded in white matter too -Assosiated with seizures and schizophrenia (B) defective proliferation -Lissencephaly, when you don't have all of the groves in the cortex, much fewer neurons that there should be in the cortex, a smooth cortex -Some connections and myelination are made but there is severe impairment in these individuals Pruning occurs through programmed cell death called apopteosis -Cells turn genes on that initiate their death and die in a controlled way -In prefrontal cortex during late teens early 20's, increases in short term memory, increase in white matter and decreased neuron number To be or not to be -Signal comes in the form of a neurotrophin, that tells the neuron it isn't forming a good synapse -This is a chemical that promotes the survival
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