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Attitudes and Beliefs.docx

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Florida State University
SOP 3004
Kate Zielaskowski

Attitudes and Beliefs 1. From Affect and Emotions to Attitudes a. Feelings influence attitudes b. Attitude: global evaluative reaction, favorable/unfavorable c. Affective response is part of every attitude d. Affective response can spread to related objects e. Learned associations i. Classical conditioning 1. Pavlov ii. Operant conditioning 1. Car door ajar noise iii. Social learning iv. We like what we have learned to like f. Zajonc (1968) “Chinese” character study i. Subliminal exposure to novel ideograph characters ii. Pp’s picked which character they liked most from list 1. Some seen before, some not 2. They picked the ones that they actually saw 3. The “mere exposure effect” a. People tend to develop a preference for things merely because they are familiar with them g. Classical conditioning and attitudes: the mere exposure effect i. Favorability increases with greater exposure 1. We develop pleasant associations with stimulus ii. Mere exposure 1. I love this song now! iii. Associate things we like with happy times 1. This song reminds me of… h. Affect informs attitudes i. Some groups may purposely incite negative emotion for this purpose 1. Appeal to emotion: extremely effective fallacy a. Glenn Beck i. Feelings influence attitudes i. Appeal to fear 1. Fear encourages preference for status quo 2. Increases support for standing leaders ii. Wilson (2004) Cornell Terror Alert Study 1. Counted warnings (alert level increases in Washington Post) 2. Gallup approval rating 3. Spike of additional 2.75% of Americans as it went up 4. As terror alerts went up, approval went up 2. Components of Attitudes a. ABC dimensions of attitudes i. Affect ( + or - ) ii. Behavior (Predisposition) iii. Cognition (Thoughts) b. Measuring the ABCs of attitudes (e.g., snakes) i. Affect – GSR (galvanic skin response), heart rate ii. Behavior – avoidance iii. Cognition – dangerous, creepy c. Reported attitudes can be influenced by social desirability concerns d. Researchers have to be careful i. It isn’t good enough to simply ask about an attitude e. Unobtrusive attitude measures i. Avoid provoking social desirability ii. Some creative ones: 1. The letter technique 2.
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