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Social Beliefs and Judgments.docx

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SOP 3004
Kate Zielaskowski

Social Beliefs and Judgments 1. How do they work? a. Priming i. Activating an idea 1. In the lab, sequential presentation of stimuli a. Mask b. Prime c. Mask d. Target ii. Prime may be supraliminal or subliminal iii. Spreading activation iv. Elderly stereotype study 1. No speed words, walked more slowly 2. Social cognition: heuristics and biases a. People want and need to conserve mental resources i. Rely on schemas, scripts, prototypes 1. Schema - A structured cluster of pre-conceived ideas. b. Motivated cognition i. Errors in our favor ii. False consensus iii. False uniqueness c. Heuristic – basic general guideline and criteria when making decisions 3. Heuristics and biases a. Representativeness heuristic i. We judge the likelihood of something based on how well it seems to represent the typical case ii. Stereotypes cause us to disregard probability information b. Availability heuristic i. “If examples of X come to mind easily, then X must be very likely” ii. If something is easier to think of we assume it is more common and thus more likely to happen iii. Classic study: “R - - -“ words versus “- - R - “ words iv. Implications for our social thinking v. Co-occurring rare events 1. Salient (noticeable, prominent or conspicuous) 2. Especially likely to think they’re related 3. Vividness – encourages us to perceive a correlation where none exists c. Illusory correlations i. Minority-group members and crime 1. Classic 1976 “Minority Group Study” (Hamilton and Gifford) a. “Group A” numerical m
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