HIST 1000 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Charles Alexandre De Calonne, Social Conflict, Individual And Group Rights

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6 Feb 2017
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History #4
French Revolution: 1789 1794
- Very important event
- Had 2 parts
o Liberal
o Reign of Terror
French Revolution: pulls down Old Regime
- Starts ‘liberal movement’
o All about rights
- Plants seeds of democracy
o Individual rights
o Loyalty to nation rather than monarch
- Spreads from France to Europe
France had 3 legal classes
- Divided into Estates
1. Clergy (0.5% of population)
a. Owned land but exempt from taxes
2. Nobles (2%)
a. Owned 1/3 of land
i. Also exempt from taxes
b. Leading role in society
3. Rest of population (~98%)
a. Owned 1/3 of land
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b. Bourgeoisie, merchants, peasants
i. Everyone not included in the aristocracy
More land = more wealth
- Why 1st and 2nd Estates clashed with 3rd
Mid late 1700’s monarch: Louis XVI
- Marie Antoinette was Queen
o Austrian woman
Convenient marriage
- Louis was weak and indecisive
Causes of the Revolution:
1. Fiscal crisis
- France was going broke
- Involved in too many wars
o US Revolution, French and Indian War, etc.
- Royal extravagance
o Versailles is expensive
- Borrowed money from other countries
o Almost ½ of debt was interest by 1780
- Raised taxes to pay for things
o Hardest hit were peasants
o So many exemptions for nobility and clergy
2. Social conflict
- Nobility clashes with everyone
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