HIST 3566 Lecture 1: War and Imperialism class notes

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11 Dec 2017
a. The course is a wide ranging and comprehensive survey of modern warfare from
min 19th century to world war II
b. The analysis of modern warfare moves through a global and multidisciplinary
2. Subject areas (1)
a. Lays out the changes in the character of war and relates them to the broader
historical process from which these changes arose: democratization,
modernization, technological changes, western imperialism, etc.
b. How these changes in warfare affect international relationships
c. Explores conceptions/meanings of war, strategy and military theory and their
historical and cultural context
d. Focuses on the relationship between the state and the conduct of war: processes
of mobilization for total war
e. Examines the social, political and economic impact of modern war on societies
f. Provides an introduction to international law and war
3. What is war
a. Etails the use of foe although it is possile to hae a state of a i hih
direct military confrontation is suspended (cold war))
b. War involves reciprocity- if x attacks y, y must respond for war to occur
c. War presumes a degree of intensity and duration
d. Those who fight do so as public servants, not in a private capacity
e. Wa has alas a ai. This ai is ofte oatiel defied i politial tes
4. The (classic) meaning of war
a. Clausewitz axiom: a has ee thoughout history a normal way of conducting
disputes etee politial goups M. Hoad
b. War is, or certainly was, identified with the state and war is an instrument of
state policy
c. War is intimately bounded with the evolution of the modern state
Diplomacy and wars: the balance of power Revolutionized, c.1850-1871
Pre-Notes: The French revolution nationalisms, separation between religion and politics,
created a new political consciousness. The French revolution shaped the language of politics
definition we use today. The bouscwazy???? Established itself as.
Congress of Vienna main powers of Europe come together after the fall of napoleon to create
a stable europe
1. Congress of Vienna (sept. 1814-June 1815)
a. Napoleon was defeated and former rulers were temporarily restored to power
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b. GB, Austria, Prussia, and Russia called a congress in Vienna to redraw the map of
Europe to establish a durable regime of peace
c. The congress of Vienna was the first of a long series of international meetings
ko as the ogess of Euope
2. Operating principles
a. Principle of legitimacy or continuity: the lafullegitiate ulig authoit is
sanctified by God and that people are bound to it ad sujet to it “talh
b. Compensation: distribution of spoils; or adjustment of territories; or annexations
among the victors compensation was designed to not generate imbalance of
c. Balance of power: a state of affais suh that o oe poe is i a positio
where it is preponderant and can lay down the law to othes Vattel)
3. Quadruple Alliance and the principle of intervention
a. The quadruple alliance (then pentarchy) bound the contracting parties to aid
each other against all attempts to break the European peace
b. Principle of intervention: the sovereigns declared their intentions of repressing
rebellion that opposed legitimate governments
i. Austrian troops were authorized to repress revolts in naples and
Piedmont (1821)
ii. Russia, Prussia and Austria authorized France to attack Spain to restore
the Bourbon Monarchy (1823)
iii. The eastern crisis (1826-9); France, GB, and Russia succored the Greek
iv. Britain deterred continental monarchies to intervene in the revolutions in
the Hispanic and Portuguese colonies
v. The New Eastern crisis (1832-41): Russia in 1832-3 and four powers
(except France) rescued the ottoman Empire as it was at risk of being
overthrown by the Pasha of Egypt
4. Ideological Divide
a. 1830s and 40s revolutions: growing ideological rift between abolitionist and
moderate liberal-constitutionalist governments
b. Britain opposed the application of the principle of intervention as mere tool in
support of reactionary interests.
c. While the ideological rift did ot affet the Viea sstes apait to aage
international crisis, absolutist policies did
5. The springtime of the peoples
a. 1848-1851: the largest, the most widespread and most violent series of revolts
of Ninetieth century Europe
b. The revolutionary outbust as piail assetios of atioalit o athe ial
atioalities Hosa
c. Iteatioal peae ad ode tepoail o out oe eolutio, a ad
aitio “hoede,
6. Nationalism
a. Nationalism both seeking liberation or reform threatened peace
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b. Natioalis poided the oppotuit ad eas fo aitious leades ad
governments to pursue expansionist aims, often old statist and dynastic ones,
ude e eolutioa slogas “hoede, 
7. Crimean War (1853-1856) oe of the ad jokes of histo
a. Causes:
i. Immediate Cause: a religious dispute about who France or Russia was
the protector of the Christian holy places in Palestine
ii. Wider Cause: The decline of the Ottoman Empire and Russian ambitions
on the Black Sea and Balkans alarmed both France and GB
b. Diplomatic effects of the Crimean war
i. Breakdown of the concert of Europe:
1. withdrawal of both Russia and GB from European affairs
2. Faes e iteatioal aitios
3. The breaching of the Austro-Russian alignment that had existed
since 1726
ii. The Italian state of Piedmont, which had fought on the side of the allies,
gained her place at the negotiating table, advancing the Italian national
8. Italian Unification
a. 1858: Piedmontese secret diplomatic alliance with Napoleon III against Austria
b. 1859: Second Italian war of independence: Franco-Piedmontese victory
c. Austro-French armistice of Villafranca: Piedmont obtains Lombardy. In addition,
three Dushies of Tuscany, Parma, Moderna and part of the papal states voted to
join piedmont
d. Garibaldi invaded the kingdom of two sicilies with 1000 irregulars, expelling the
e. Naples, Sicily and most of papal territories were absorbed into the kingdom if
f. 1861 Kingdom of Italy is proclaimed
g. The Legacy of Italian independence
i. Italy was still incomplete and would remain a destabilizing force in
Europe politics
ii. Fae as isolated ad Napoleo as disedited as leade of the
Viea sste, hile old ialies ee aggaated “hoede, 
iii. Caous atios otiuted to udeie and stable code of conduct
ad sste of utual estait Iid
9. The creation of Germany 1862-1871
a. Fo eas Bisak adoated epadig Pussias teito ad poe ad fits
its geat poe eeds ad ole… “hoede,
b. Not  speehes ad otes of the majority, are the great questions of the time
deided… ut  io ad lood
10. The Danish War (1864)
a. 1864: Austria and Prussia declared war against Denmark which had annexed
the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein
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