GEOG 102 Lecture Notes - Lecture 23: Dependency Theory, Why Nations Fail, Structural Adjustment

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12 Jul 2020
School
Department
Course
Professor
Geog 102
Cultural Geog
Spring 2017
Development Theories
Third World Perspectives on development
Dependency theory
Robbing third world countries of autonomy
Drain Theory: robbed of autonomy in a way which is not good for them,
negative consequences
Dependence is created
Disadvantage is development possibilities of these countries
From first world: development era was all about catching up, implicit idea is
that development is mutually beneficial
Third world perspective: linkages to these countries are a disadvantage,
undermining development possibilities
Global dependence (Amin)
Once you’re in the third world, you’re stuck because you’re systematically
disadvantaged
World system theory
There will always be some countries that will be disadvantaged but that
doesn’t mean some countries futures are fixed
example: china being more core, influential shaper
Race and Dependency
W.E.B. Dubois
Founders of NAACP
After second world war, moved from US to Ghana
See quote: boycott exports from exploiting world, live simply
Argument that race was an important part of this process
Many of third world countries occupied by white, racial inadequacy always piled on
top of political and economic forces at play
Women and Development
Chandra Mohanty
From prespective of those propagating development: emancipate women
If they make women full equal political and economic members then that ought to be
able to spread benefits of development more broadly in that society
Chandra Mohanty: when you listen to what women in the west had to say about what
women in the third world countries ought to be doing was what worked from them in
the United States; a sense of paternalism; geography matches= what works in north
America isn’t necessarily going to work; create space for women of third world to
articulate their own agendas
June Nash: anthropologist, studied women in assembly plants in Mexican border;
can’t just fix problem at home, part of disadvantage is global processes shaping by
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the political and economic disadvantage of being working class and being located in
the geographic location
Maria Mies: not an issue of global capitalism, issue how women have been
disadvantaged across systems, gender marginalization that predates colonialism,
global capitalism
It’s not enough to provide opportunities in labor market because there are deeper
structural powers that simply cannot be addressed by local integration
Development Alternatives for Women in the New Era: DAWN
Association of African Women for Research and Development
Gender and Development
Naila Kabeer: women in third world have a better sense of what is good for them than
we do, has to be grassroots
Only by paying more attention to knowledge and experiences of people living at the
bottom of the development ladder
Globalization and Development
Globalization has taken on a particular meaning in the last 40 years, mid 1970s
Particular form that globalization has taken, recent manifestation of globalization
which has taken much longer forms
First World Perspectives
From “Development” to “Globalization”
1944: Bretton Woods
meeting
made Truman’s speech possible
various countries on US/UK side on second world war
design how the world would look after the end of the second world war
US had opportunity to push European powers to give up colonies, colonies
would become independent colonies
These countries were deeply in debt to US (the ones that had colonies);
Europeans reluctant to do this
Did start to change discourse from world living in European clusters into a
world in which independence was going to come sooner or later
Wanted Americans to be able to sell commodities to all of these former
colonies
International monetary fund was agreed on here
World bank also agreed on: originally International Bank for Reconstruction
and Development
Original role to lend money to Western European countries to help
rebuild after second world war
Later took on global mandate for lending money for development
project
Various countries promised sums of money
Amount of money you gave to institutions related to your political power
Also an attempt to construct international trade organization
To regulate free world trade
Not created, refused by US senate
1996 world trade organization created
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