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International Affairs
INTA 1110
Tarun Chaudhary

9/4/2012 Classical Realism Power and Interest - “normative”  1) what the world ought to be or 2) ideal types - Could be associated with realism - Anarchy – there is no higher authority o Within states there is a hierarchal structure o The system as a whole, however, tends to be anarchy - Realism – a school of thought which can be traced back to antiquity - Antiquity o Greeks and Spartans joined together to repel Persians o Spartans were traditionally a power because of their military prowess o Spartan society was built on the back of the merchant class which allowed society to dedicate itself to militarism – men did not become full Spartan citizens until age 30 o Athens was another major power in the general area - Thucydides o Father of modern realism o Lived during the time mentioned above o As Athenian power rose, Sparta became alarmed (their power implicitly weakened) thus making war inevitable o Why Do Men Go To War: “Honor, Fear, and Interest.” - Melian Dialogue o Thucydides’ account of an exchange between Athens and Melos o Melos was a Spartan colony which was neutral during the war o Athens decided that Melos, being an island colony, had to declare its loyalty to Athens or risk complete annihilation o Athenian Argument: Athens had the tactical advantage; Sparta was too far away to leave. Allowing Melian neutrality would weaken Athens. It would be in both their best interests: Melos would avoid total destruction and Athens would benefit from Melos’ service. Athenian power lies in its wealth, numbers, and sea power. Justice does not exist. The only justice is what reality dictates: the Athenian fleet is here and Sparta cannot help because it is a land power. o Melian Answer: Giving up the fight would be to give up hope. They placed their trust in the gods and in the Spartans. They argued that a treaty would be more beneficial. They appealed to justice. o Outcome: Athens built a wall around Melos and eventually took over the city and enslaved its citizens. - Human Nature o Realism  humans are competitive  humans will try to dominate eachother o Alternative Concept  Humans will cooperate  Security can be achieved through cooperation - Political Realism o Thucydides  Political fate  Necessity and security  Political survival  Safety  You are responsible for your own survival o Machiavelli  Political agility  Opportunity and security  Political survival  Civic virtue  “The Prince”  A good sovereign secures more power through whichever way necessary in order to ensure the security of his people  To apply moral values in sovereignty is to weaken the state and open it up to be taken advantage of o Hobbes  Political will  Security dilemma  Political survival  Peace and felicity  “The Leviathan”  In a state of nature, there is no place for trade and economics or cooperation – survival of the fittest  Aggregations of people that live in a state of nature will come together to form a sovereign government and will give up their rights to the gov’t in order to focus on something other than their own survival – the gov’t is now the protector of the peo
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