Lecture 9.docx

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International Affairs
INTA 1110
Tarun Chaudhary

9/20/12 Power and Security Review before Constructivism Power and Realism - Classical Realism – Morgenthau o conflict arises from Honor, Fear, and Interest (power is a necessary evil)  power establishes honor  leads to fear  and can be wielded to achieve interests - Morgenthau o Interests can be defined in term of power o Anarchy means competitive environment as dictated by human nature o Human nature is a causal force o Zero sum notion of power gains Power and Neorealism - Decouples power from human nature - Waltz o Structure of the international system  Anarchic  Anarchy leads to a power struggle  Survival Necessitates power accumulation o Scientific Measurement of power – Waltz  Size of population  Territory  Resources  Economic capability  Military strength  Political stability  Competence of leadership o Materialist in pursuit of indication o Classical Realism – Hegemon o Neorealism - Bipolar Threat - A secure environment is characterized by absence of threat - Security is derived from threat - Perception of threat is an acknowledgement that you are not secure How do you know threat? - Intention o Is it empirically knowable? o It can be articulated o Inferred from standing capabilities  Resources  Military power  Etc. o Articulated Intentions, for realists, cannot be used as a guarantee of security - Mersheimer o Offensive Realism  Nation-states will continue to seek power regardless of system security o Defensive Realism Offense/Defense Theory - Steven Van Evera o War will be more common in periods where conquest is viewed to be easier  I will have more offensive capability than you, so I will act now o Belligerency will be more likely when a nation believes they are likely to be lacking capability vis-à-vis another in the near future  You will have more offensive capability than me soon, so I should act now Influence - Schelling - Arms and Influence
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