Lecture 2

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Georgia Institute of Technology
International Affairs

1/18/13 Lecture 2 Sykes-Picot Agreement - Secret agreement between the UK and France which proposed spheres of influence dividing the Middle East after WWI - Went against promises made to create a unified Arab state - Divided areas outside the Arabian peninsula into areas of British and French influence - UK controlled Suez Canal - Aqaba o Important area o He who controlled it could be a threat to the Suez Canal o Contained Turkish port o Very difficult to capture  British naval superiority was useless because of the geography o Lawrence of Arabia unified Arab’s in the area and helped capture Aqaba for the British Balfour Declaration - A declaration that the British would help establish a Jewish national home in Palestine but not at the expense of the local population Partition of the Middle East - The interests of Britain, France, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire - Milestones o 1904 Entente Cordial o Hussen-MacMahon Correspondance o Sykes-Picot Agreement 1916 o Balfour Declaration 1917 o Conference of San Remo 1920  Determined mandates in what were previously Ottoman Empire lands o Treaty of Sevres 1920  Peace treaty between Allies and Ottoman Empire at the end of WWI Post-WWI Middle East - Who stands to gain from colonization? o Elites o Ethnic minorities o The colonizing country o Local strongmen with interest in gaining power - The Origins of the Arab-Israeli conflict o British Mandate, U.N. Resolution - Nationalism as the dominant force in 1940-50s o 3 modes of nationalist consciousness  Liberal Assimilation  Attempt to engage in dialogue  Elite use education  Traditional Anti-colonialism
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