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Lecture 11

BIOL 104 Lecture 11: BIOL 104 movement and locomotion notes

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George Mason University
BIOL 104

BIOL 104 WEEK 10 NERVOUS SYSTEM INTEGRATION NOTES Some review and misc. parts  White matter. Made up of myelinated sheaths (which cover axons and dendrites). It looks while because these sheaths are quite fatty.  Gray matter. This consists mostly of nerve cell bodies, as well as axons and dendrites without the myelinated sheath.  Ventricles. These are spaces in the CNS that contain cerebrospinal fluid. o Cerebrospinal fluid moves nutrients, hormones, and other substances around. o It also acts as a shock absorber, particularly in the brain  Meninges o Nervous tissue generally has the consistency of watery jello. It’s very fragile. o Meninges are made up of tough connective tissue and surround nervous tissue.  This helps protect nervous tissue; it also allows for cerebrospinal fluid to circulate. o In the brain, meninges consist of:  The dura mater, which is an outer covering  The arachnoid membrane, which is a space in the middle and is also filled with cerebrospinal fluid  The pia mater, which is the inner membrane lying right over the brain The PNS, or Peripheral Nervous System:  This consists of paired spinal nerves and paired cranial nerves o Spinal nerves come/go to the spinal cord, cranial nerves come/go to the brain  They are actually quite similar in structure o Each set comes/goes to different structures. Except for a few cranial nerves (i.e. optic nerves), each set contains both sensory and motor components o Mammals have 12 pairs of cranial nerves (other groups like reptiles only have 10)  The PNS is divided into two broad groups: o 1. Somatic – has sensory and motor nerves,  these are the ones that you have voluntary control over and that sense the external environment. o 2. Autonomic – generally not voluntary  this includes nerves that serve the internal organs  the autonomic system is actually divided into three parts, but let’s skip the details Integration – or, how does this work and fit together?  Example: a reflex arc (knee jerk reflex) o Sensory neuron  CNS  motor neuron o This is a very simple, straight forward pathway  A reflex is a response that does not involve the brain o Your leg responds without the brain being involved o But – you can feel the response. So the signal does eventually get to the brain  How does a sensory signal get to the brain o There are two pathways that lead to the brain. Both cross over to the other side in the spinal cord  1. Sensory neuron  thalamus  sensory cortex  thalamus. This coordinates information coming from different parts of the body and sends it to the correct spot in the cortex  cortex. This is the outer layer of the cerebrum o cerebrum – higher functions take place here (more on this shortly) o the sensory cortex is a special part of the cerebrum  2. Sensory neuron  cerebellum  the cerebellum is a major area of motor coordination and motor memory o for example, learning how to walk, play the piano or ride a bike o sensory cortex  this receives information from different parts of the body. Each part of the body can be represented on the surface of the sensory cortex.  The area on the sensory cortex is related to the # of receptors at each part of the body o For example, the fingers have many more receptors, and also a much greater area on the sensory cortex There are other pathways going into the brain as well:  Optic nerve  (eventually)  thalamus  primary visual cortex  Taste receptors  brainstem (pons, medulla)  thalamus  parietal lobe  Auditory nerve  “superior olive”  thalamus  primary auditory cortex o “superior olive” helps determine direction of sound  smell receptors  cortex  thalamus  other parts of cortex to summarize, all these pathways eventually wind up in the cortex, which as mentioned, is the outer part of the cerebrum  cerebrum o this is a highly folded structure: it is surface area rather than volume that appears to contribute to intelligence o no other animal has as many ridges and grooves as man. Next in line are actually dolphins.  The cerebrum processes and integrates information from all parts of the body o Different areas of the cortex can be mapped to different functions such as speech, pattern recognition, etc.  The cortex, particularly the frontal part, is where “intelligence” resides So, information is received and processed  Then, if needed, the appropriate action can be taken  Another important part of the brain is the corpus callosum o This moves information between the two halves of the cerebrum If some action (response) is taken or needed, then the motor cortex receives information from the following:  1. Occipital lobe  2. Temporal (hearing, memory, emotion)  3. Parietal lobes (sensory, spatial) o all via the frontal association cortex, or lobe  motor cortex: o very similar to the sensory cortex – it maps parts of the body on it’s s
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