FRSC 200 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Stereo Microscope, Nanometre, Thermocouple

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Crime Scene Processing
Timing---evidence can be lost with time
Have a plan---systematic search method
Attention of safety---safety of scene searchers
Appropriate personnel---qualified and trained
Controlling scene---authorized personnel only
Documentation---sketching the scene and establishing a chain of custody for all evidence
Crimes are reported by
---a witness to the crime
---a victim of the crime
---by law enforcement (police discover a crime) while the incident is in progress
Frist officer on the scene
---ascertains if perpetrator is on scene (hot search/cold search)
---tends to the injured
---notifies needed personnel (supervisor, medical examiner, CS team)
---secures consent or a warrant to search (14th amd)
---secures scene & avoid walking through the scene or search for evidence
---insures safety, note any obvious safety hazards
Hot search
---assumes that perpetrator is currently in vicinity of the crime scene
---thorough search of crime scene and surrounding area
---Done immediately after crime scene is discovered
Cold search
---assumes that perpetrator has fled scene
---done hours/days after crime scene has been discovered
---residents, etc. canvased for potential witnesses
---most forensic scientists involved in cold searches
Initial Scene Examination
---Follow unit protocol
---ME or coroner establishes a preliminary PMI for any decedent
---body is examined for evidence and transported
---Survey scene to establish boundaries both inside and out
---decide on search method
Systematic Search of Crime Scene
---Videotape & photograph entire scene
---decide on search method (grid, line, zone, or spiral)
---evidence is marked & photographed
---sketch of crime scene including tented evidence
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Crime Scene photograph
---photograph outside with distance and close up views of all access pts
---room shots show 4 corner views
---distance and close up photos of evidence
Crime Scene Recording
---videotapes/photos are often taken of scene
---log(记录)must be kept of video/photos
---use of digital photograph allows incorporation of pics into reports
----photographer has almost immediate access to picture quality which may determine usability
---digital photographs can be enhanced for clarity when presented to a jury
Evidence Collection
---results of scientific analysis of evidence is only as good as evidence brought to the lab
---proper collection, preservation and packaging of evidence is crucial
---determination of evidence collectors may depend on seriousness of crime (simple theft,
clandestine drug labs, homicide)
---forensic scientists or experts may be needed at scene
Three Major Steps of Evidence Collection
---Recognition of evidence
---Collection of evidence
---Packaging and preservation of evidence
Recognition of Evidence
---must have ability to recognized evidence, team of experts in various types of evidence
---discerning what is evidence and what is not (context of crime, types of crime scene)
---context of crime, types of crime and crime scene are important to discerning evidence
---generally, there is no such thing as too much evidence
---collect everything initially, as it is difficult if not impossible to return and collect more
evidence---chain of custody and contamination issues
Evidence collection
---- within reason, collect as much evidence as possible
---collect trace evidence (collect first)
---collect adequate(充足的) evidence to allow for testing- defense may want to test separately
---probative value or significance of evidence can be enhanced(加强的)if linked to a known
object or material
General Order for Evidence Collection “Do no harm”
Tire impressions
Footwear
Trace evidencefiber/hairs
Blood/biological fluids
Latent fingerprints
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Document Summary

Documentation---sketching the scene and establishing a chain of custody for all evidence. --by law enforcement (police discover a crime) while the incident is in progress. --ascertains if perpetrator is on scene (hot search/cold search) --notifies needed personnel (supervisor, medical examiner, cs team) --secures consent or a warrant to search (14th amd) --secures scene & avoid walking through the scene or search for evidence. --assumes that perpetrator is currently in vicinity of the crime scene. --thorough search of crime scene and surrounding area. --done hours/days after crime scene has been discovered. --me or coroner establishes a preliminary pmi for any decedent. --survey scene to establish boundaries both inside and out. --decide on search method (grid, line, zone, or spiral) --photograph outside with distance and close up views of all access pts. --use of digital photograph allows incorporation of pics into reports. ---photographer has almost immediate access to picture quality which may determine usability.

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