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Class Notes for GEOL 101 at George Mason University (GMU)

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GMUGEOL 101Stacey VeradoFall

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Outer Core, Uniformitarianism, Geosphere

OC10653333 Page
30 Aug 2016
0
All of the planets were formed around the same time ( - 4. 7bya) They are formed from the same materials - but in differing percentages. All planets mo
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Shear Stress

OC10640842 Page
28 Jul 2016
2
Deformation: term applied to all changes in the size, shape, orientation, or position of a rock mass. Stress: amount of force per unit area: under stre
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Oceanic Crust, Convergent Boundary, Basalt

OC10640843 Page
28 Jul 2016
2
Earth"s magnetic field: it"s like there is a huge magnet in the center of the earth. Apparent polar wandering: you can check cooled magma to tell where
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Stratovolcano, Viscosity, Basalt

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28 Jul 2016
6
Magma viscosity: viscosity is the resistance of a liquid to flow. High viscosity= liquid flows with difficulty: volcanoes that erupt low viscosity magm
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 18: Cambrian Explosion, Supercontinent Cycle, Supercontinent

OC10640843 Page
28 Jul 2016
6
Banded iron formations: deposited between 3. 5 & 2 billion years ago as oxygen was added to the atmosphere and immediately removed by oxidation of iron
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 14: Evapotranspiration, Transpiration, Rain Shadow

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28 Jul 2016
2
Sinkholes: when the ground seems to break and drown, are just caves where the roofs have collapsed. Deserts: areas that have extremely low precipitatio
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 13: Geomorphology, Subsidence, Porosity

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28 Jul 2016
4
Natural levees: piling sediment along rivers to prevent flooding of surrounding towns. Alluvial fans: form on flat land and is the lowest the stream fl
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Solifluction, Earthflow, Defrosting

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28 Jul 2016
2
Horsts & grabens: horsts: when land is rising (a hill, graben: when hanging wall is falling (hole) Thrust faults: rocks are eroding and it leaves a lit
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 17: Beta Particle, Atomic Number, Outer Core

OC10640842 Page
28 Jul 2016
4
Radioactivity: the process by which atomic nuclei spontaneously break apart, or decay, radiometric dating. Alpha emission: emission of alpha particles
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Igneous Rock, Porphyritic, Aphanite

OC10640842 Page
28 Jul 2016
6
Reasons for crystal size: cools beneath the surface= big crystals, cools above the surface= little crystals. Fine grain crystals (tiny crystals: glassy
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 16: Unconformity, Erosion Surface

OC10640842 Page
28 Jul 2016
7
Coastal hazards: hurricanes: storm surge: a lens of water pushed in front of a storm, raising the water above normal high tide. Tides: are daily change
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GMUGEOL 101UhenSpring

GEOL 101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Thermal Expansion, Hydrolysis, Weathering

OC10640842 Page
28 Jul 2016
5
Unloading: removing pressure from rocks that then creates cracks that lead to sheets in rock. Fractures & joints: cracks in the rocks along which there
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