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ENGL 1102
Robert Manfredi

ENGL 1102 8/29 Notes: Rhetoric Manny Elsar  In Ancient Greece & Rome, citizens focused on making decisions, resolving disputes, and mediating public discussion of important issues. o RHETORIC = CITIZENSHIP  Disagreement is universal among all citizens as rhetoric brings us to a decision, whether it be clear-cut and dry or still full of discrepancies.  The Problem of Perception o Theory: cognition, consciousness & self-consciousness. o Kenneth Burke: “If people didn’t disagree, rhetoric wouldn’t be possible. Rhetoric is used to explain one’s viewpoint on a wide array of topics that are relevant to the given medium of conversation.” o KW: INVENTION: finding and displaying the available arguments on any issue.  Requires systematic thought, practice, and thoroughness.  Rhetoric is productive arguments and intelligent discourse o For it to occur, people must be open to new ideas & beliefs. (It also represents a purely democratic society.)  Rhetoric & Power: o Rhetoric is used to distribute the POWER that resides in language among all of its students. People who study rhetoric can use it to its best means.  Representative (Rep.) Theory of Language o Language is transparent as it lets meanings shine throughout it. It represents meaning (Locke & Empiricism)  Constitutive Theory of Language o Language constructs meaning. LANGUAGE IS A FORCE THAT MOVES PEOPLE TO A CALL OF ACTION.  Rhetoric & Contemporary Society o In today’s world, we highly value science and facts; however, facts need context and interpretation. Good and effective rhetoric isn’t just facts and expert testimony.  KW: PROPOSITION: arguable statement put forward for discussion within an argument.  KW: PROOF: statement(s) used to persuade an audience to accept a proposition. Aristotle’s 3 Kinds of Rhetorical Proofs  Ethos: o Author’s ch
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