PSYC 4100 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Rhinal Cortex, Inner Ear, Classical Conditioning

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23 Aug 2016
School
Department
Course
Professor
Ch1
Working Memory
Articulatory Rehearsal Loop Visuospatial Sketchpad
Requires
2 less likely to get confused
elements
Subvocalization Phonological buffer
Initates rehearsal loop (Articulatory suppression)
Not executive command auditory image
‘Inner voice” “Inner ear’
Ch 2
Capgras syndrome- patient has complete accurate memories of the bast but no sense
at all of familiarity (faces of family members of friends) demend imposters
An example showing the independent nature of source memory and familiarity
Ch3
Detectors: Like memory nodes, receive their activation from other detectors; they
can accumulate activation from different inputs to reach threshold and fire.
Network of detectors might function in object recognition
Bigram detector
Repetition primingStrengthening connections due to repeated exposure?
-oliphant (1983): Show pattern of Repetition Priming via Lexical decisions
Lexical decisions “indirect” are quicker if the person has recently seen the word
Semantic priming – words are related in meaning
Ch5
Learning involves the creation or strengthening of connections”
Memory – “a vast network of ideas”
1. Building neural pathways
2. Rebuilding/reactivating that same pathway: LTP
Acquire (encoding) new information (“input info into a computer”)
Storage (“store electronic memories in hard drive”)
Retrieval- bring memory into active use (2 forms of retrieval)
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-Recall – presented a retrieval cue, we then come up with the information on our own
“Can you remember the words to that song?”
-Recognition – decide whether it’s the sought- after information or not
“Is that the man who robbed you?”
LTM vs Working Memory: size, ease of entry, ease of retrieval, fragility
LTM: Retrieval specifically activated the hippocampus (fMRI)
Working Memory: Retrieval specifically activated the perirhinal cortex
(fMRI)
7 +/- 2 Chunks
Intentional vs Incidental learning: memory can be just as good without
the intention provided that you approach the materials in the right way
-Level of processing: Shallow vs Deep: The manner of engagement that
determines if something will be remembered
-Attention to meaning
Operation span- explicitly designed to measure Working memory’s
capacity adding more chunks each time. (ex: digit-span task, reading span)
Brown-Peterson Task
Sternberg Task
Ch6
Good learning establishes connections between acquisition and retrieval
How you learn (acquisition) depends heavily on what you already know (storage)
Memory connections ‘highways’ influence search for target information.
Context-Dependent learning:
Context only has it’s effect because it influences how you think
about the materials to be remembered Thoughts and perspective
matter not physical environment per se.
Changes in your approach for memory
Godden and Baddeley (1975):Scuba divers memorized
wordsin different situations tested in same or different situation.
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Remembered more in same environment. Feeling/thinking same
thoughts
Smith, Glenberg, and Bjork (1978): learning and testing
different rooms
Fisher and Craik (1977): Influenced perspective directly: series of
word pairs (“context” word and “target” word), remember 2nd, some
semantically associated, think about word’s meaning, others rhymed
think about target word’s sound. Retrieval cue associated with
meaning or sounded like… Retrieval cues matching learning and test
conditions. This match effect wins over the levels-of
processing effect! Deep but unmatched (17%)” “not so deep,
matched (26%)”
Encoding Specificity:
What you encode is specific-not just with the physical stimulus
encountered, but the stimulus in some other context
Tulving (1983)- “the” “other” What was learned was not just the word;
insteadwhat was learned was the broader, integrated experience.
“Piano-as-a-musical-instrument” isn’t what participants learned if they
say the “lifted” sentence, and so they’re correct in saying this item wasn’t
on the list.
Memory Network
“nodes” – representation of connections tied together via
associative links.
Long-term storage- activation travels from node to node
via associative links.
Spreading activation- central role in retrieval helps us
understand why memory connections are so important/helpful
Energy spreading from the just activated node via its associations
which will activate the nodes connected to the just activated node.
More ‘signal’ input to a particular node increases Activation level of
that node- Response threshold must be reached to be fired.
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