Indp. Variable: factors that are manipulated.
Dependent Variable: the response.
Positive Correlation: One variable increases, the other variable increases as well.
Negative Correlation: As one variable increases, the other variable decreases.
Spurious Correlation: variables appear to be related, but in actuality, they have diff. causes.
Ex: Ice cream sales go up in the summer and so does crime; however, the sale of ice
cream isn’t related to the increase of crime but rather the fact that it’s summer and
people buy ice cream more frequently in the summer.
Institutional Review Board: Is the research being performed ethical and protecting participants?
Required: informed consent and voluntary participation (no coercion)
Absolute Poverty: don’t have the resources necessary to survive.
Relative Poverty: compared to other segments of society; classify “poor” as less than ½ the
Social Security Administration, in 1964, created the poverty line we use to today to mark off the
official wage needed to be officially declared poor.
Based on the cost of food X 3 (shelter, clothing)
o Family of 4: $23,500
o Single person: $11, 500
What’s the problem with this method?
o In 1964, people spent 1/3 of income on food. In the present day, people spend
about 1/5 of income on food. It doesn’t take into account the difference today,
meaning people probably spend more on shelter than they did in 1964.
In 2011, 48.5 million people in the U.S. lived under poverty line (15.9%)
o Poverty spell: 1/3 of the population live in poverty for more than 2 months.
o Chronic poverty: Mainly the homeless and migrant workers (2.2%)
Who’s more likely to be poor?
Race General Population Poverty %
White 65.9 % 12.3 %
African American 12.8% 25.8%
Latinos 15.1% 25.3%
Asians 4.5% 12.5 % Gender:
58 % of poor U.S. Adults are women.
o Influx of single mothers recently, feminization of poverty, & Wage Gap
(81 cents for every $1)
The people least likely to be poor are married couples with no children. (3.9%)
The South is the poorest region in the U.S. with 15.7 % of its citizens under the
poverty line. The West comes in 2 with 14.8 %. Midwest w/ 13.3 %, then the
Northeast with 12.2 %.
The state with the least amount of poverty is New Hampshire with 8.8 percent,
while the state with the highest percentage of poverty is Mississippi with 22.6
In 1996, the current day system of welfare changed dramatically.
o The system was revamped and changed into TANF( Temporary Aid Needy
Families) Aid is granted UP TO 5 YEARS and can only rece