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Lecture 1

BMS 212 Lecture 1: Unit 1, Section 1- Introduction

6 Pages

Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BMS 212
Aaron Baxter

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BMS 212 - Exam 1 lectures I. The Importance of Microbiology - INTRODUCTION We thought we had reached the end of infectious diseases because: 1. Antibiotics were being developed 2. We thought we had classified every source 3. Public health was better 4. Vaccines were being developed 5. Smallpox had recently been eliminated – we got arrogant and thought we could eliminate the others just as easily But…in the 1980s: 1. New diseases arose – HIV, West Nile, etc 2. Diseases became resistant to antibiotics 3. Not all diseases have a vaccine – each time one is developed the diseases mutates 4. Longer lives – longer exposure, weakening immune system 5. Lifestyle or genetic diseases – might have viral or bacterial components II. The Scope of Microbiology Microbiology The study of living things that are too small to be seen without magnification. Microbes Impact and/or presence 1. They are ubiquitous – found everywhere 2. They are important in biological processes – i.e. cows require certain bacteria to digest grass 3. Recycling – they help in the nitrogen cycle Major groups of microorganisms 6 major groups 1. Bacteria and archeaebacteria (bacteria that prefer extreme environments) – prokaryotes 2. Fungi – eukaryotes, not photosynthetic 3. Protozoa – eukaryotes, most are not pathogens but those that are can cause big problems 4. Algae – photosynthetic, none are true pathogens, these produce the bulk of the world’s oxygen 5. Helminths – parasites (worms, etc.), can be large enough to be visible 6. Viruses – particles, not living organisms III. History of Microbiology A. Early History *don’t need to know the dates – just names and contributions* Robert Hooke – 1665 - Built an early compound microscope - Coined the term “cell” - Formulated the concept that there are living, functional things that are too small to see Antoni van Leeuwenhoek – 1674-1723 - Drew/recorded what he saw under his microscopes - Described the “animalcules” that he saw in a series of letters to the Royal Society of London - Discovered the microbial world with his microscope *animalcules: small animals* His work led to many different branches of study – - Bacteriology – bacteria - Parasitology – - Phycology – algae parasites/helminths - Mycology – fungi - Virology – viruses (not - Protozoology – protozoa developed until later) - B. The Golden Age of Microbiology (late 1800s- early 1900s) - - Question #1: Biogenesis vs. abiogenesis - Biogenesis: “life comes from life” - Abiogenesis: “life comes from nothing” – spontaneous generation - 1. Franciso Redi (1688) - Didn’t believe that decaying meat spontaneously formed flies - Put meat in three jars – one covered with paper, one with gauze, and one uncovered - Discovered that when the decaying meat was isolated (sealed with paper) no maggots appeared. The uncovered meat was infested, the one covered in gauze had maggots on the gauze. - Concluded the maggots came from flies that were drawn to the meat – life comes from life - - 2. John T. Needham - to be noted in your reading - Boiled beef gravy and plant broth, then tightly sealed the flasks with cork - Days later he examined them and found microbial life - Concluded that spontaneous generation did exist because the boiling should have killed anything living - - 3. Lazzaro Spallanzani – to be noted in your reading - Boiled plant broths, sealed them completely by melting the openings closed - The infusions remained clear until he broke the seal – once exposed the broths were soon infested - Concluded that Needham either didn’t heat the broths long enough or didn’t seal the flasks well enough. The microorganisms exist in the air, spontaneous generation does not occur. - Criticisms: the sealed vials must have killed the microorganisms by cutting off their air supply; prolonged heating destroyed the “life force” - - * infusion: broths made by heating water containing plant or animal material* - - 4. Louis Pasteur - Boiled broth in a swan-neck flask – this allowed air in but any dust or microbes settled in the dip in the neck so they didn’t get to the broth - He left it for 18 months and nothing grew until he broke the neck off - Concluded that the dust in the air housed the microorganisms - - - - - - Question #2 - What causes fermentation? - - 1. Louis Pasteur (1861) - Discovered: o Yeast cells come only from other yeast cells o They are anaerobic o Yeast ferments to alcohol o Bacteria ferments to acid - Opened fields in: o Microbial physiology o Anaerobic growth o Pasteurization o Biotechnology - Yeasts: o Some thought they were nonliving globules of chemicals and gases o Some thought they were living but spontaneously generated during fermentation o Some thought they were living and that they caused fermentation - - 2. Eduard Buchner (1897) (from reading) - What field of science was he instrumental in his contributions? - His experiments revealed the presence of enzymes during fermentation. - He helped begin the field of biochemistry and the study of metabolism - - Quest
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