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Lecture 1

BMS 212 Lecture 1: Unit 1, Section 1- Introduction

6 Pages
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Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BMS 212
Professor
Aaron Baxter

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BMS 212 - Exam 1 lectures
I. The Importance of Microbiology - INTRODUCTION
We thought we had reached the end of infectious diseases because:
1. Antibiotics were being developed
2. We thought we had classified every source
3. Public health was better
4. Vaccines were being developed
5. Smallpox had recently been eliminated we got arrogant and thought we could
eliminate the others just as easily
But…in the 1980s:
1. New diseases arose HIV, West Nile, etc
2. Diseases became resistant to antibiotics
3. Not all diseases have a vaccine each time one is developed the diseases mutates
4. Longer lives longer exposure, weakening immune system
5. Lifestyle or genetic diseases might have viral or bacterial components
II. The Scope of Microbiology
Microbiology
The study of living things that are too small to be seen without magnification.
Microbes Impact and/or presence
1. They are ubiquitous found everywhere
2. They are important in biological processes i.e. cows require certain bacteria
to digest grass
3. Recycling they help in the nitrogen cycle
Major groups of microorganisms
6 major groups
1. Bacteria and archeaebacteria (bacteria that prefer extreme environments)
prokaryotes
2. Fungi eukaryotes, not photosynthetic
3. Protozoa eukaryotes, most are not pathogens but those that are can cause big
problems
4. Algae photosynthetic, none are true pathogens, these produce the bulk of the
world’s oxygen
5. Helminths parasites (worms, etc.), can be large enough to be visible
6. Viruses particles, not living organisms
III. History of Microbiology
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A. Early History *don’t need to know the dates – just names and contributions*
Robert Hooke 1665
- Built an early compound microscope
- Coined the term “cell”
- Formulated the concept that there are living, functional things that are too
small to see
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek 1674-1723
- Drew/recorded what he saw under his microscopes
- Described the “animalcules” that he saw in a series of letters to the Royal
Society of London
- Discovered the microbial world with his microscope
*animalcules: small animals*
His work led to many different branches of study
- Bacteriology bacteria
- Phycology algae
- Mycology fungi
- Protozoology protozoa
- Parasitology
parasites/helminths
- Virology viruses (not
developed until later)
B. The Golden Age of Microbiology (late 1800s- early 1900s)
Question #1: Biogenesis vs. abiogenesis
Biogenesis: “life comes from life”
Abiogenesis: “life comes from nothing” spontaneous generation
1. Franciso Redi (1688)
- Didn’t believe that decaying meat spontaneously formed flies
- Put meat in three jars one covered with paper, one with gauze, and one
uncovered
- Discovered that when the decaying meat was isolated (sealed with paper) no
maggots appeared. The uncovered meat was infested, the one covered in
gauze had maggots on the gauze.
- Concluded the maggots came from flies that were drawn to the meat life
comes from life
2. John T. Needham - to be noted in your reading
- Boiled beef gravy and plant broth, then tightly sealed the flasks with cork
- Days later he examined them and found microbial life
- Concluded that spontaneous generation did exist because the boiling should
have killed anything living
3. Lazzaro Spallanzani to be noted in your reading
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Description
BMS 212 - Exam 1 lectures I. The Importance of Microbiology - INTRODUCTION We thought we had reached the end of infectious diseases because: 1. Antibiotics were being developed 2. We thought we had classified every source 3. Public health was better 4. Vaccines were being developed 5. Smallpox had recently been eliminated – we got arrogant and thought we could eliminate the others just as easily But…in the 1980s: 1. New diseases arose – HIV, West Nile, etc 2. Diseases became resistant to antibiotics 3. Not all diseases have a vaccine – each time one is developed the diseases mutates 4. Longer lives – longer exposure, weakening immune system 5. Lifestyle or genetic diseases – might have viral or bacterial components II. The Scope of Microbiology Microbiology The study of living things that are too small to be seen without magnification. Microbes Impact and/or presence 1. They are ubiquitous – found everywhere 2. They are important in biological processes – i.e. cows require certain bacteria to digest grass 3. Recycling – they help in the nitrogen cycle Major groups of microorganisms 6 major groups 1. Bacteria and archeaebacteria (bacteria that prefer extreme environments) – prokaryotes 2. Fungi – eukaryotes, not photosynthetic 3. Protozoa – eukaryotes, most are not pathogens but those that are can cause big problems 4. Algae – photosynthetic, none are true pathogens, these produce the bulk of the world’s oxygen 5. Helminths – parasites (worms, etc.), can be large enough to be visible 6. Viruses – particles, not living organisms III. History of Microbiology A. Early History *don’t need to know the dates – just names and contributions* Robert Hooke – 1665 - Built an early compound microscope - Coined the term “cell” - Formulated the concept that there are living, functional things that are too small to see Antoni van Leeuwenhoek – 1674-1723 - Drew/recorded what he saw under his microscopes - Described the “animalcules” that he saw in a series of letters to the Royal Society of London - Discovered the microbial world with his microscope *animalcules: small animals* His work led to many different branches of study – - Bacteriology – bacteria - Parasitology – - Phycology – algae parasites/helminths - Mycology – fungi - Virology – viruses (not - Protozoology – protozoa developed until later) - B. The Golden Age of Microbiology (late 1800s- early 1900s) - - Question #1: Biogenesis vs. abiogenesis - Biogenesis: “life comes from life” - Abiogenesis: “life comes from nothing” – spontaneous generation - 1. Franciso Redi (1688) - Didn’t believe that decaying meat spontaneously formed flies - Put meat in three jars – one covered with paper, one with gauze, and one uncovered - Discovered that when the decaying meat was isolated (sealed with paper) no maggots appeared. The uncovered meat was infested, the one covered in gauze had maggots on the gauze. - Concluded the maggots came from flies that were drawn to the meat – life comes from life - - 2. John T. Needham - to be noted in your reading - Boiled beef gravy and plant broth, then tightly sealed the flasks with cork - Days later he examined them and found microbial life - Concluded that spontaneous generation did exist because the boiling should have killed anything living - - 3. Lazzaro Spallanzani – to be noted in your reading - Boiled plant broths, sealed them completely by melting the openings closed - The infusions remained clear until he broke the seal – once exposed the broths were soon infested - Concluded that Needham either didn’t heat the broths long enough or didn’t seal the flasks well enough. The microorganisms exist in the air, spontaneous generation does not occur. - Criticisms: the sealed vials must have killed the microorganisms by cutting off their air supply; prolonged heating destroyed the “life force” - - * infusion: broths made by heating water containing plant or animal material* - - 4. Louis Pasteur - Boiled broth in a swan-neck flask – this allowed air in but any dust or microbes settled in the dip in the neck so they didn’t get to the broth - He left it for 18 months and nothing grew until he broke the neck off - Concluded that the dust in the air housed the microorganisms - - - - - - Question #2 - What causes fermentation? - - 1. Louis Pasteur (1861) - Discovered: o Yeast cells come only from other yeast cells o They are anaerobic o Yeast ferments to alcohol o Bacteria ferments to acid - Opened fields in: o Microbial physiology o Anaerobic growth o Pasteurization o Biotechnology - Yeasts: o Some thought they were nonliving globules of chemicals and gases o Some thought they were living but spontaneously generated during fermentation o Some thought they were living and that they caused fermentation - - 2. Eduard Buchner (1897) (from reading) - What field of science was he instrumental in his contributions? - His experiments revealed the presence of enzymes during fermentation. - He helped begin the field of biochemistry and the study of metabolism - - Quest
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