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Lecture 6

BMS 212 Lecture 6: Unit 1, Section 6- Survey of Eukaryotes

8 Pages

Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BMS 212
Aaron Baxter

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Survey of Eukaryotes (Fungi, Protozoa and Algae) I. Fungi - Cell wall made of chitin - Not photosynthetic – no chloroplasts - Environmentally diverse – can live in harsh conditions in terms of pH, oxygen concentrations, salinity, moisture, etc. - Significant in nutrient recycling, symbiotic relationships, food/drug production Structure of fungi Two main types a. Molds and Fleshy Fungi - Seldom individual cells Hyphae: the body of the structure, composed of long, branched, tubular filaments - Two classes of hyphae Septate: divided into separate cells by crosswalls called septa Coenocytic: cells are not divided by septa - Two types of hypha Vegetative hypha: obtain nutrients in the ground Reproductive or aerial hypha: reproductive structures above ground Mycelium: The overall structure, composed of intertwined hyphae forming a tangled mass b. Yeasts - Non-filamentous - Generally unicellular - Oval or spherical - Two types of yeasts Fission yeasts: crosswall forms in the center of the cell for equal division Budding yeasts: cells unequally proportioned Pseudohypha - Forms when buds fail to detach - Appears filamentous *pseudohypha are environmentally dependent – in the environment they tend to stay unicellular, in the host they become pseudohyphic to help push deeper into the tissues Dimorphic fungi - Shift between unicellular and filamentous forms Nutrition heterotrophic – gain their nutrients from organic substrates saprobes – feed off of dead organisms parasites – feed off of live hosts - Cause mycosis (fungal disease) - Form haustoria to penetrate tissues and withdraw nutrients *haustoria: like a straw, degrades the tissue and sucks it up* Reproduction - Fungi most often reproduce using spores. - All fungi undergo asexual reproduction, and it is believed that all are capable of sexual reproduction as well. Two types of spore formation a. Asexual spore formation - three subtypes of asexual spores - Sporangiospores - A membrane sac called a sporangium forms and fills with spores - This forms on a stalk called the sporangiophore, at either the tips or off the sides of the hyphae - Conidiospores (conidia) - These are the most common - Spores are produced at the tips or off the sides of the hyphae, but not in a sac - Some form chains called conidiophores, some form a spore- bearing projection called a sterigma - Chlamydospores - Spore forms within the hypha - Once it has matured, the hypha breaks and releases the spore cell b. Sexual spore formation 1. Two haploid cells (known as + and -, not male and female) fuse and form a dikaryon (two nuclei) 2. The nuclei fuse, the cell is now considered diploid 3. Meiosis restores the haploid state 4. Spore partition, maturation, and release occurs - Three common types of sexual spores - zygospores (zygosporangium) - The gametes form at the tips of the hypha - They come into contact and fuse into the dikaryon - This forms the zygosporangium, which produces a haploid sporangium that fills with spores - The spores are released - ascospores - Hyphal tips fuse - Dikaryons form and remain in this state for some time - They become diploid when the nuclei fuse and then form haploid cells - Haploid cells line the ascus (pl. asci, these are just sacs that hold spores) of the fruiting body, these may undergo mitosis and cytokinesis to form 8 ascospores - The asci open and release the ascospores - basidiospores - The + and – fuse in the soil - Replication and growth occurs, producing a basidiocarp (mushrooms) - In the gills of the mushroom the haploid cells become diploid - Meiosis occurs and results in four haploid nuclei that form four basidiospores *This is as far as we got in lecture, Professor Baxter cut out the rest of these notes – I filled out the rest from the book* Lichens - A symbiotic relationship between fungi and photosynthetic microorganisms (usually cyanobacteria, but sometimes green algae) - The hyphae of the fungus surround the photosynthetic organisms and give them nutrients, water, and protection - The photosynthetic organisms gives the fungus some of the products of their photosynthetic reactions (carbohydrates and oxygen) - Not all of these are beneficial to both organisms - The fungi reproduce by spores that must find their own organism to grow around - Sometimes wind, rain, or animals carry pieces of lichen (soredia) to new locations where they are able to grow if the environment is right Fruticose: either erect or hanging cylinders Crustose: grow pressed against their substrates and may even extend into the substrate several millimeters Foliose: leaflike, margins grow free from the substrate Uses: - Create soil from worn rocks - Provide a lot of nitrogen to the environment (if they contain nitrogen-fixing
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