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Lecture 6

BMS 212 Lecture 6: Unit 1, Section 6- Survey of Eukaryotes

8 Pages
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Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BMS 212
Professor
Aaron Baxter

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Survey of Eukaryotes (Fungi, Protozoa and Algae)
I. Fungi
- Cell wall made of chitin
- Not photosynthetic no chloroplasts
- Environmentally diverse can live in harsh conditions in terms of pH, oxygen
concentrations, salinity, moisture, etc.
- Significant in nutrient recycling, symbiotic relationships, food/drug production
Structure of fungi
Two main types
a. Molds and Fleshy Fungi
- Seldom individual cells
Hyphae: the body of the structure, composed of long, branched,
tubular filaments
- Two classes of hyphae
Septate: divided into separate cells by crosswalls called
septa
Coenocytic: cells are not divided by septa
- Two types of hypha
Vegetative hypha: obtain nutrients in the ground
Reproductive or aerial hypha: reproductive structures above
ground
Mycelium: The overall structure, composed of intertwined hyphae
forming a tangled mass
b. Yeasts
- Non-filamentous
- Generally unicellular
- Oval or spherical
- Two types of yeasts
Fission yeasts: crosswall forms in the center of the cell for
equal division
Budding yeasts: cells unequally proportioned
Pseudohypha
- Forms when buds fail to detach
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- Appears filamentous
*pseudohypha are environmentally dependent in
the environment they tend to stay unicellular, in the
host they become pseudohyphic to help push deeper
into the tissues
Dimorphic fungi
- Shift between unicellular and filamentous forms
Nutrition
heterotrophic gain their nutrients from organic substrates
saprobes feed off of dead organisms
parasites feed off of live hosts
- Cause mycosis (fungal disease)
- Form haustoria to penetrate tissues and withdraw nutrients
*haustoria: like a straw, degrades the tissue and sucks it up*
Reproduction
- Fungi most often reproduce using spores.
- All fungi undergo asexual reproduction, and it is believed that all are capable
of sexual reproduction as well.
Two types of spore formation
a. Asexual spore formation
- three subtypes of asexual spores
- Sporangiospores
- A membrane sac called a sporangium forms and fills with
spores
- This forms on a stalk called the sporangiophore, at either the
tips or off the sides of the hyphae
- Conidiospores (conidia)
- These are the most common
- Spores are produced at the tips or off the sides of the hyphae,
but not in a sac
- Some form chains called conidiophores, some form a spore-
bearing projection called a sterigma
- Chlamydospores
- Spore forms within the hypha
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find more resources at oneclass.com
- Once it has matured, the hypha breaks and releases the spore
cell
b. Sexual spore formation
1. Two haploid cells (known as + and -, not male and female) fuse and
form a dikaryon (two nuclei)
2. The nuclei fuse, the cell is now considered diploid
3. Meiosis restores the haploid state
4. Spore partition, maturation, and release occurs
- Three common types of sexual spores
- zygospores (zygosporangium)
- The gametes form at the tips of the hypha
- They come into contact and fuse into the dikaryon
- This forms the zygosporangium, which produces a haploid
sporangium that fills with spores
- The spores are released
- ascospores
- Hyphal tips fuse
- Dikaryons form and remain in this state for some time
- They become diploid when the nuclei fuse and then form
haploid cells
- Haploid cells line the ascus (pl. asci, these are just sacs that
hold spores) of the fruiting body, these may undergo
mitosis and cytokinesis to form 8 ascospores
- The asci open and release the ascospores
- basidiospores
- The + and fuse in the soil
- Replication and growth occurs, producing a basidiocarp
(mushrooms)
- In the gills of the mushroom the haploid cells become
diploid
- Meiosis occurs and results in four haploid nuclei that form
four basidiospores
*This is as far as we got in lecture, Professor Baxter cut out the
rest of these notes I filled out the rest from the book*
Lichens
- A symbiotic relationship between fungi and photosynthetic microorganisms
(usually cyanobacteria, but sometimes green algae)
- The hyphae of the fungus surround the photosynthetic organisms and give them
nutrients, water, and protection
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Description
Survey of Eukaryotes (Fungi, Protozoa and Algae) I. Fungi - Cell wall made of chitin - Not photosynthetic – no chloroplasts - Environmentally diverse – can live in harsh conditions in terms of pH, oxygen concentrations, salinity, moisture, etc. - Significant in nutrient recycling, symbiotic relationships, food/drug production Structure of fungi Two main types a. Molds and Fleshy Fungi - Seldom individual cells Hyphae: the body of the structure, composed of long, branched, tubular filaments - Two classes of hyphae Septate: divided into separate cells by crosswalls called septa Coenocytic: cells are not divided by septa - Two types of hypha Vegetative hypha: obtain nutrients in the ground Reproductive or aerial hypha: reproductive structures above ground Mycelium: The overall structure, composed of intertwined hyphae forming a tangled mass b. Yeasts - Non-filamentous - Generally unicellular - Oval or spherical - Two types of yeasts Fission yeasts: crosswall forms in the center of the cell for equal division Budding yeasts: cells unequally proportioned Pseudohypha - Forms when buds fail to detach - Appears filamentous *pseudohypha are environmentally dependent – in the environment they tend to stay unicellular, in the host they become pseudohyphic to help push deeper into the tissues Dimorphic fungi - Shift between unicellular and filamentous forms Nutrition heterotrophic – gain their nutrients from organic substrates saprobes – feed off of dead organisms parasites – feed off of live hosts - Cause mycosis (fungal disease) - Form haustoria to penetrate tissues and withdraw nutrients *haustoria: like a straw, degrades the tissue and sucks it up* Reproduction - Fungi most often reproduce using spores. - All fungi undergo asexual reproduction, and it is believed that all are capable of sexual reproduction as well. Two types of spore formation a. Asexual spore formation - three subtypes of asexual spores - Sporangiospores - A membrane sac called a sporangium forms and fills with spores - This forms on a stalk called the sporangiophore, at either the tips or off the sides of the hyphae - Conidiospores (conidia) - These are the most common - Spores are produced at the tips or off the sides of the hyphae, but not in a sac - Some form chains called conidiophores, some form a spore- bearing projection called a sterigma - Chlamydospores - Spore forms within the hypha - Once it has matured, the hypha breaks and releases the spore cell b. Sexual spore formation 1. Two haploid cells (known as + and -, not male and female) fuse and form a dikaryon (two nuclei) 2. The nuclei fuse, the cell is now considered diploid 3. Meiosis restores the haploid state 4. Spore partition, maturation, and release occurs - Three common types of sexual spores - zygospores (zygosporangium) - The gametes form at the tips of the hypha - They come into contact and fuse into the dikaryon - This forms the zygosporangium, which produces a haploid sporangium that fills with spores - The spores are released - ascospores - Hyphal tips fuse - Dikaryons form and remain in this state for some time - They become diploid when the nuclei fuse and then form haploid cells - Haploid cells line the ascus (pl. asci, these are just sacs that hold spores) of the fruiting body, these may undergo mitosis and cytokinesis to form 8 ascospores - The asci open and release the ascospores - basidiospores - The + and – fuse in the soil - Replication and growth occurs, producing a basidiocarp (mushrooms) - In the gills of the mushroom the haploid cells become diploid - Meiosis occurs and results in four haploid nuclei that form four basidiospores *This is as far as we got in lecture, Professor Baxter cut out the rest of these notes – I filled out the rest from the book* Lichens - A symbiotic relationship between fungi and photosynthetic microorganisms (usually cyanobacteria, but sometimes green algae) - The hyphae of the fungus surround the photosynthetic organisms and give them nutrients, water, and protection - The photosynthetic organisms gives the fungus some of the products of their photosynthetic reactions (carbohydrates and oxygen) - Not all of these are beneficial to both organisms - The fungi reproduce by spores that must find their own organism to grow around - Sometimes wind, rain, or animals carry pieces of lichen (soredia) to new locations where they are able to grow if the environment is right Fruticose: either erect or hanging cylinders Crustose: grow pressed against their substrates and may even extend into the substrate several millimeters Foliose: leaflike, margins grow free from the substrate Uses: - Create soil from worn rocks - Provide a lot of nitrogen to the environment (if they contain nitrogen-fixing
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