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Lecture 5

BMS 212 Lecture 5: Unit 1, Section 5- Eukaryotic Cell Structure

6 Pages
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Department
Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BMS 212
Professor
Aaron Baxter

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Eukaryotic Cell Structure
I. External Eukaryotic Structures
A. Glycocalyx
a. Structure
- Usually more like a slime layer
- Anchored to the cell membrane
- Not present in eukaryotes that have cell walls
b. Functions
- Protection
- Water retention
- Adherence
- Cell-to-cell recognition
- Communication
- Strengthens cell surfaces
B. Cell Wall
a. General
- Located in fungi, algae, and a few protozoa
- Functions in strength and maintaining the cell shape
b. Structure
- Contains cellulose, pectin, chitin, mannans, and minerals
- Which structural components are present and concentrations of them
depend on the organism
C. Cell membrane
a. Structure
- Sterols (i.e. cholesterol) strengthen the membrane but maintain fluidity
- Membrane rafts localize functions
b. Function
- Protein sorting
- Signaling
- Movement
- Exocytosis and endocytosis
- *No group translocation*
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II. Internal membrane bound structures
A. Flagella and Cilia
a. Structure
- Membrane bound
- Microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement
run the length
- Dynein arms interconnect the
microtubules
- Basal body (kinetosome) has a 9+0
arrangement
*9+2 is 9 pairs of microtubules
surrounding a pair in the middle*
*9+0 is 9 trios of microtubules with
nothing at their center*
b. Movement
- Whip-like motion
- Some push and pull
- No runs and tumbles
c. Differences
i. Flagella
- Located on the poles of the cells
- Long and flexible
ii. Cilia
- Located all over the cell surface
- Shorter and stiffer
- *located on protozoa and animal cells, not on prokaryotes*
B. Nucleus
a. Structure
i. Surface
1. Nuclear envelope
- Two phospholipid bilayers
- Permeated by nuclear pores
- Outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
2. Nuclear pores
- Go through the nuclear membrane
- Protein-lined channels
- Control the import and export of materials between the nucleus
and the rest of the cell
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Description
Eukaryotic Cell Structure I. External Eukaryotic Structures A. Glycocalyx a. Structure - Usually more like a slime layer - Anchored to the cell membrane - Not present in eukaryotes that have cell walls b. Functions - Protection - Water retention - Adherence - Cell-to-cell recognition - Communication - Strengthens cell surfaces B. Cell Wall a. General - Located in fungi, algae, and a few protozoa - Functions in strength and maintaining the cell shape b. Structure - Contains cellulose, pectin, chitin, mannans, and minerals - Which structural components are present and concentrations of them depend on the organism C. Cell membrane a. Structure - Sterols (i.e. cholesterol) strengthen the membrane but maintain fluidity - Membrane rafts localize functions b. Function - Protein sorting - Signaling - Movement - Exocytosis and endocytosis - *No group translocation* II. Internal membrane bound structures A. Flagella and Cilia a. Structure - Membrane bound - Microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement run the length - Dynein arms interconnect the microtubules - Basal body (kinetosome) has a 9+0 arrangement *9+2 is 9 pairs of microtubules surrounding a pair in the middle* *9+0 is 9 trios of microtubules with nothing at their center* b. Movement - Whip-like motion - Some push and pull - No runs and tumbles c. Differences c.i. Flagella - Located on the poles of the cells - Long and flexible c.ii. Cilia - Located all over the cell surface - Shorter and stiffer - *located on protozoa and animal cells, not on prokaryotes* B. Nucleus a. Structure a.i. Surface a.i.1. Nuclear envelope - Two phospholipid bilayers - Permeated by nuclear pores - Outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum a.i.2. Nuclear pores - Go through the nuclear membrane - Protein-lined channels - Control the import and export of materials between the nucleus and the rest of the cell a.ii. Interior a.ii.1. Nucleoplasm - Semi-liquid matrix - Like cytoplasm - Contains nuclei and chromatin a.ii.2. Nucleolus - Location of rRNA synthesis - High transcription rate a.ii.3. Chromatin - Composed of DNA, histone, and nonhistone proteins a.ii.3.a. Heterochromatin - Very condensed DNA - Low transcription rate a.ii.3.b. Euchromatin - Loosely packed DNA - High transcription rate a.ii.3.c. Replication/Structural differences from prokaryotes - Introns: long sections of chromatin that aren’t translated - Exons: sections of chromatin that are translated a.ii.3.c.i. Haploid - Single copy of the chromosomes a.ii.3.c.ii. Diploid - Two copies of the chromosomes a.ii.3.c.iii. Replication a.ii.3.c.iii.1. Mitosis - Asexual reproduction - Identical daughter cells a.ii.3.c.iii.2. Meiosis - Sexual reproduction - Daughter cells are different from parent cells C. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) a. Two forms a.i. Smooth ER
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