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Lecture 5

BMS 212 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Cytokinesis, Phagocytosis, Tubulin

6 pages105 viewsFall 2016

Biomedical Sciences
Course Code
BMS 212
Aaron Baxter

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Eukaryotic Cell Structure
I. External Eukaryotic Structures
A. Glycocalyx
a. Structure
- Usually more like a slime layer
- Anchored to the cell membrane
- Not present in eukaryotes that have cell walls
b. Functions
- Protection
- Water retention
- Adherence
- Cell-to-cell recognition
- Communication
- Strengthens cell surfaces
B. Cell Wall
a. General
- Located in fungi, algae, and a few protozoa
- Functions in strength and maintaining the cell shape
b. Structure
- Contains cellulose, pectin, chitin, mannans, and minerals
- Which structural components are present and concentrations of them
depend on the organism
C. Cell membrane
a. Structure
- Sterols (i.e. cholesterol) strengthen the membrane but maintain fluidity
- Membrane rafts localize functions
b. Function
- Protein sorting
- Signaling
- Movement
- Exocytosis and endocytosis
- *No group translocation*
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II. Internal membrane bound structures
A. Flagella and Cilia
a. Structure
- Membrane bound
- Microtubules in a 9+2 arrangement
run the length
- Dynein arms interconnect the
- Basal body (kinetosome) has a 9+0
*9+2 is 9 pairs of microtubules
surrounding a pair in the middle*
*9+0 is 9 trios of microtubules with
nothing at their center*
b. Movement
- Whip-like motion
- Some push and pull
- No runs and tumbles
c. Differences
i. Flagella
- Located on the poles of the cells
- Long and flexible
ii. Cilia
- Located all over the cell surface
- Shorter and stiffer
- *located on protozoa and animal cells, not on prokaryotes*
B. Nucleus
a. Structure
i. Surface
1. Nuclear envelope
- Two phospholipid bilayers
- Permeated by nuclear pores
- Outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum
2. Nuclear pores
- Go through the nuclear membrane
- Protein-lined channels
- Control the import and export of materials between the nucleus
and the rest of the cell
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