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Lecture 1

HIST 1011 Lecture 1: 26APR

6 Pages

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HIST 1011
Agnew Hugh

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26 APRIL 2017 20C AS CONFLICT--WW11 ● WWI ended w germany exhausted and collapsed, Russia in rev, japan took over german concessions in china and controlled in N China Manchuria--power balances upset--2 major powers became negligible ○ What would happen when they rebuild? Was East Euro a vital interest for US? What would happen when USSR existed? ● Fascism seeks scapegoating and othering people ● But democracies want to make world safe for democracy during WWI, want international stability and trade in system ○ US policies during WWI--US pulls into isolation although economically exchanged ○ Communism newcomer ideology--as the war broke out, russia stood to side but was brought into war by german invasion; although they were supposed to be against capitalism, they were a US ally so there was an issue ● Military tech/strategies ○ Germans pioneered new tactic--​blitzkrieg lightning war​--new weaponry and tanks into offensive war so rapid german advances ■ Impact on fr in 1940 is difficult to underestimate ■ Used against british in battle of britain w airplanes ○ Extreme form of total war; impact of strategic bombing--hard to say if made difference but it destroyed infra and limited productive capacity of nazi empire ○ Aircraft tech had produced a jet aircraft ○ Radar helps british to know when the german attacks were coming that way their aircrafts could be mobilized ● WWII challenges modern civilization in that it constitutes a challenge w the holocaust--type of genocide that we had not seen before ○ Fundamental challenge to enlightenment roots of modern euro civilization ● Development of the nuclear weapon--production debated on whether or not it should be used if moral Causes ● One can look to Versailles System as a cause of WWII ○ New map--A-H gone, ottoman empire gone, nation-states emerged--problem of legitimacy following WWI--why should a citizen obey the state--solution was nation states ■ But lots of minorities still which was problematic--the only one that was pure was hungary but ⅓ hungarians lived outside hungary ■ Will democracy work in a society where there had previously been none? ■ How can the new states be secured? What would happen when germ/ussr came back--some collective security experiments but failed ultimately ○ The german people suffered deprivation bc there was less money bc of the reparations paid; lost a little territory and were resentful ○ Conference Completely ignored russia bc never had someone speaking for russia, so USSR emerged as pariah state after civil war ■ Took until the 1930s for countries began to formally recognize USSR ○ Italy and Japan upset w what they got ■ Led to Mussolini’s rise ■ Japan action in manchuria in 1931 ○ New peace treaty has to be signed 3 years later in the middle east to recog turkey ○ “Egypt for the egyptians” ○ Mahatma Ghandi--passive resistance against british control of india ○ Pan africanist congress 1919 founded ○ Constructive outcome: League of Nations--seemed as alliance of the victors against the vanquished ● Brief period of stability, followed by instab ● “Collective insecurity”--how to guarantee peace--Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928 signed by almost everyone--outlawed war declaring to be int crime ○ LoN said sanctions against ppl who violated sovereignty ● LoN problems bc Germ and Rus never in and US never joined--both briefly joined after initially out and then both kicked out before WWII ● German reparations drained economic recovery ○ By late 1920s most states had returned economy to normal ○ 1930s US econ crashed and repercussions around world--many tried to restrict imports to protect local economies--whole world negatively affected ○ Wymar Germany--est itself after WW1 ○ Once hitler in power, ignored versailles treaty ○ Ignored mussolini’s decision to invade ethiopia How? ● Germany’s foreign policy during 30s--Hitler ignores Versailles ○ Pulls out of LoN, rearms Germany, sends troops into Rhine/French Frontier Region which had been demilitarized in treaty ○ When SP civil war distracted people, fascists got to test out tactics and nacis ● 1938--Hitler marches into austria which had been forbidden from joining germany in VT--absorbed Mar 38 ○ International crisis at end of crisis--led to bRITISH PM to fly to germany to speak directly w hitler; conference in oct 1938--italy, hitler, bt, fr--decide fate of czech ■ Surrender german speaking territories; hiler guaranteed to protect the rest of the state but eventually took it over anyways ○ Intended to provoke war over czech but people conceded to him so he didnt start war; turned attn to poland to start war GB policy backed by FR--didnt appease anymore and guaranteed safety to poles, romanians, and greeks and extended hand to USSR ○ LoN failed to do anything abt IT invasion of Ethio ○ Japan invaded Manch and executed puppet state and started war w china from there ● Search for allies to try to stop war ○ USSR tried to get shot down by GB, FR, NAZI GERM ○ W failed to bring in USSR on their side bc stalin got to stay out of the war and make gains bc of the non aggression pact--represents bankruptcy of ideologies ○ Nazis and USSR hated each other until the signing of the treaty ○ Norway may 1940, germany takes over ft 1940 ○ In the E, Japan had bogged down china but increasingly attacked british and french interests and then brought US into war ● Operation Barbarosa--​Lesenbraum​--delayed 6 weeks bc Italy got in a conference w greece and went badly and germans had to help them ● Although Russia controlled much of Ukraine, they never controlled a prize ○ The USSR had survived--the soviets were attempting to push germans back q great technology like more tanks--by 1944 they had reached the edge of the pre-war soviet boundary and were preparing to invade balkans ○ On W, allies had been forced off of continent ○ British survived battle of britain--lots of victims of hitler had joined the structure ○ Invasion of italy in 1943 caused collapse of mussolini's gov ○ June ‘44--opening of w front ● Odd GB-FR-US-USSR ally--before 1941 USSR had been seen as passive supporter bc of invasion of finland/baltics ○ Once war started, churchill and roosevelt were willing to pursue winning the war and then figuring out USSR--anyone fighting Germ was an ally ○ Even tho church had previously stated that he was v anti communism and wanted to stop it but said as long as they were fighting as nazi germany he would take it ● May 1945--war ends; not until aug in pacific ● Fascism only hung on in sp and portu until 1970s ● Ending of ww2 in pac ○ Involved the US more that GB or FR--battle for air supremacy--naval tactic bc of carriers ○ US Island Hopping--ignored unimportant islands and moved to home islands--Iwo Jima ○ War ended
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