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Lecture 4

HIST 1011 Lecture 4: 6FEB

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HIST 1011
Agnew Hugh

6 MAR 2017 Explaining Population Increases Except for N and S America, difficult to explain Nutrition and hygiene arent convincing bc sanitation in cities isnt good; nutrition gains are offset by losses Progress and environment Medical science still largely ignorant; dealt w scurvy and smallpox, thoughled to stocking ships w limes and lemons Ecological explanationsmixing of populations spread natural immunities; pathogens may have also changed to survive better Intermarriage, genetic predispositions are also changed Vaccination too, copied from the Ottoman Empire ChinaEconomic Trends In 1800, 10 of chinese grain was sold on the market instead of eaten by consumersmeans you have moved away from a subsistence economy All of the sink, tea, and salt sold on the market China didnt caredidnt depend on the system, but the rest of the world wanted what China had Until the 18C, still cash transactions onlyno trade imbalance where europeans benefited But, then, chinese began to discover the opium market; Chinese users demanded the product, but it couldnt be produced in china bc british had the monopoly How was China vulnerable? Position in the global economy could be harmed by the export of opium Generated an inelastic demand in china bc price didnt change demand People could find a way to substitute their goods for the goods that they bought in chinaeuropeans began to grow rhubarb, etc. Europeans didnt have the knowledge to make porcelain, but could only make earthenware; in the 1780s, Germans discovered how to make chinese style porcelain Habsburg empires, british, tried to grow silk and tea instead of buying from china Could increase their own productivity w industrialization High Level Equilibrium trapinternal demand met by industries w traditional technologies China was vulnerable bc it was so good at what it did No scope to increase output Chinese demand could be met by traditional chinese methods without industrialization; in GB, the production of raw cotton tripled from 1740 to 1770, but china couldnt increase production bc always producing so much Capital expensive relative to labor; if capital is too expensive, then there is no incentive to mechanize The Mughal Empire Eclipsed
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