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Lecture 9

HIST 1011 Lecture 9: 8 MARCH

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HIST 1011
Agnew Hugh

NEW NOTES 1 08 MARCH 2017 The Political fortunes of the 18C Powers ● China maintaining power ● Safavids and Ottomans waning power ● Ottoman dominance in muslim world bc of land but also bc they had conquered holy city in 16C--Medina and Mecca--in 19C--Wahabis start to revive islam and erosion of ottoman power bc thrown out of medina and mecca ● Forces working at edge of empire to erode--bringing reform fundamentalism to the ME and SE Asia ● The Mughal empire also has increasing difficulties bc of this ● Problems with maintaining religious tolerance between different religions ● The longevity of an empire that was basically one of conquest came under a lot of pressure bc of the conflict with the persians when they took away the treasure house which gave the state less funding ○ Opposing their rule over different clients was an issue ○ First wave was tributary with princes and when expanded again there were new concessions made; then the first princes got mad bc they got the short end of the stick ○ Raiders increasingly ignore the emperor and set up basically their own states and only pay basic taxes ● French, Dutch, English, Portuguese active in India ○ British controls trade in south and the french british rivalry is also played out abroad in N America ○ British E India Company militarized and escalated the Fr/GB conflict ○ Armies of the BEIC fought in Bengal--then Bengal fell to the British ○ Not a smashing victory of british arms, but the BEIC company controlled bengal and the economy of bengal--GB presence in India resembles Spanish presence in S America where people begin to resent it and then domestic powers are overthrown ● Sets stage of economic imperialism bc there are more productive economies that can take over--the fate of Mughal Empire is to fall to the British ○ Local indian rulers were faced with financial penalties--Maratas (?) ○ W Indian core territories challenged the british rule--over the 18C, they began to extend their control and est subject rule over states w a tribute system and then by the end of the 18C, they come under pressure from the british too ● One of the last resisters to british Sultan of Mysor fell around 1792 ● The riches of bengal allowed the BEIC to make a lot of money in India and expand fast ● Dutch case in India--costs not covered by generation of wealth ○ Had done well for awhile but as british turned landward to control the production of imp products made it costly for the dutch ○ Originally the dutch were basically civilized piracy around india ○ Spanish moved inward in Philippines too NEW NOTES 2 ○ The dutch created “regents” to control territory on behalf of the dutch--est of a strongly politically controlled empire by the dutch was faced w a lot of structural challenges ○ Didnt have the force to est an empire of settlement, basically could only control trade; but as they were forced to try to est direct control over the territories, it cost them a lot of money and didnt show a lot of profit for them bc they were overextended ■ Could only pay for itself after took over java and began to grow coffee there ● In 1819, Singapore was refounded by the BEIC to become a british outpost bc it was originally ruled by Malay local rulers Trading Network ● Slavery where people were forcibly transported ● 16C and 17C brought slaves from the bite of africa--some came from E but most of those traded to india ● During 18C, 400,000 Africans brought to N America ○ 1M to Spanish colonies, 1M to Caribbean, 3M to Brazil ○ All accounts of slavery agree that slavery is not an efficient mean of production bc people aren’t motivated to work hard ○ In the 17C in the 18C, work was--in some respects--all coerced at all levels--wage labor, indentured servitude, forced labor bc u were too poor so went to work houses, treadmills--used to make people run to provide power to mills and looms ○ Still existed bc the items produced had such demand so profit could still be made even if inefficient ○ Market for cotton was collapsing and almost could have ended slavery until the introduction of cotton gin by Eli Whitney--gave slavery another 50 years of existence ● The way slaves were treated--history of subjection and rebellion ● Slaves from sub saharan africa had been known in the Med--slaves from angola and the congo--went to N/S America ● Cotton, Sugar, tobacco, indigo were main crops ● Hard for these people to imagine that they had no subjectivity, but that’s how they were treated--big push to preserve their own culture ○ Within some limits, slaves were able to create community and preserve culture ○ Laws made marriages protected so owners discourages marriage but still relationships; interracial sex/marriage frowned upon ● Population trends among the slave communities make it clear that it was better to treat slaves well so that there were still more of them ● End of 19C, slave trade outlawed so it was important for the current slaves to repopulate ● Caribbean/S America--resisted by refusing to have children ● Impact on africa--africa wasnt subject to territorial expansion by europeans initially bc they only set up on border--mostly didnt try to penetrate interior bc they died bc they had no way to combat malaria NEW NOTES 3 ○ Within africa, there were states that existed that’s sole purpose was to keep the slave trade existing bc it brought trade to the region that wouldn’t be there otherwise ○ In the S part of africa--conflict between dutch colonists boars and natives Kosa people--had reached stalemate by 18C, as france moves into netherlands during napo
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