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Lecture 7

HIST 1011 Lecture 7: 22 MARCH

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HIST 1011
Agnew Hugh

NEW NOTES 10 22 MARCH 2017 Religion, Reason, and Romanticism ● Enlightenment characterized by rejection of organized religion and deism ● Yet the same period saw remarkable revival of religious expression and feeling ○ Pietism in germany (Moravians)--Count Zinzendorf ○ John Wesley and Methodism ● There were other elements in society at the time other than the belief in trust in the human reason ● Music achieved sublime heights in expression and religious belief ● First Part of 19C--Romanticism in reaction to enlightenment ○ Development tied in a way to a redefinition of the world around us ● Between 18C and 19C noticeable changes--think abt relationship to landscape--Swiss Alps and Matterhorn magnificent domineering power to reduce human beings to insignificance in 19C--organic world ● 18C looked at nature as describable and able to be scientifically represented--clockwork world ● The Cult of Nature ○ Slave trade, natural law, and inndividual rights ○ Criticized the Portuguese in Brazil and British in N America and Spanish in Mexico and Peru ● Abbe Raynal ○ Slave trade began to be looked at weirdly bc they were in a society created by slaves but they were able to step back and create the practices ● “Wild children” as natural human beings--some people discovered who literally grew up alone in the wild ● The Huron as Noble Savage ○ French missionary accounts provided raw materials to construct the ideal image of the natural man; made easier bc the huron had all died out bc of the european diseases ● Two voyagers who influence ○ Bougainville and Cook ■ Put to rest the myths of the pacific ■ Proved once and for all that there was no fake southern continent that was amazing ■ DISCOVERED AUSTRALIA ○ Wanted to feed the publics interests and engage sensation and they fed public demand for knowledge for the unknown ○ Polynesians--used as evidence that to be a moral human being you did not need to be a white christian--influenced how people thought about natural man ○ Diderot’s ​Supplement au Voyage Bougainville​--made myths about tahiti that exist to this day--described tahitians as “original human beings” NEW NOTES 11 ● Travel literature also functioned as social criticism here but more based off of observations of how it actually was rather than imaginary The Complications of Rosseau ● Rosseau’s ​The Social Contract​ 1750--what makes a government legitimate ○ Origins of civil society and legitimate government ○ Basically argued that civil society emerges when the contract elevates someone to be the sovereign and once someone is sovereign, someone is sovereign and not to be challenged bc it was from the general will of the whole community ○ Also turned attention towards inequality; didn’t believe in checks and balances though bc for a sovereign to be sovereign they had to be completely left alone ○ Someone forced to conform to the general will is being “forced to be free” the individual's will is to be subordinated to the greater good ○ “General will”--rhetoric of the french revolution ● Emile​--the raising of a natural child; ​Julie, ou la nouvelle Helpise​--contributes to the development of discourse about sensibility and that as a sensible trait--whether or not females ought to be educated in the same way as men or different or not at all ● Mary Wollstonecraft--in reaction to Rousseau--in 1791 responds to Edmund Burke in ​vindication of the rights of man​; when the Fr Rev occurred, Burke criticized it heavily and she responded ○ The Vindication of the Rights of Women ○ Women were taught to be sultry and seductive and not were born that way bc there had to be a way for them to get a husband ○ All education should be focused on the individual Fr Rev ● Breaks out in 1789 and rapidly and radically mov
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