HIST 1011 Lecture Notes - Lecture 22: Strategic Hamlet Program, Mutual Assured Destruction, Proxy War

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10 Sep 2018
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War and Terror in the Global Age
The Cold “War
- Strategic standoff
o “Mutually assured destruction” with strategic nuclear arsenal
o Russia vs. USA
o No direct confrontations of military power
o Communism and democracy both claim to be ideologies of peace
o Both had the idea that the other’s regime would fall and convert to their similar regime
Then Soviet Union collapsed without being military overcame
o India Pakistan War and Israeli Arab War had nothing to do with Cold War but got sucked into Cold War
paradigm
- “Proxy” wars
o America was the free world leader, but not everyone was democratic
As long as is anti-communist, America brought them in the coalition
o Korean WarNorth (communist) vs. South (backed by US but authoritarian)
Through medium of UN, South Korea received military aid
Chinese and Soviet on one side and America in the other
o Vietnam War
Product of decolonization
France had many messy decolonization
Cold War conflict like Korea
North (communist) vs. South (backed by US but authoritarian)
Strategic Hamlet Program aimed at strategically move entire villages
More bombs in Vietnam than WWII
Lead to divisions in western alliance
South Korea joined the Vietnam War to fight communism
Australia did too
US Free-World coalition
One justification: dominoes theory if communists won then all Asia will eventually become
communists
Laos and Cambodia became communists but that’s about it
Made US more cautious, want to avoid a second Vietnam
From draft and conscription to all-volunteer force
Grenada and Panama were short and goal was clearly defined
o Afghanistan 1980s
Clear proxy war
Revenge of US for Vietnam
Defeat of Soviets seen as victory of the free world
Actually a victory of Islam when the last Soviet tank withdrew
What US failed to understand is the meaning it took on the Islamic world
Many Muslim young men see Muslims in Afghanistan effectively fighting back want to do it too
Osama bin Laden terrorism
Ideologically zealous, militarily able, no government terrorism
Gulf War 1991 US left troops in Saudi
Terrorism
- Loose definition: political use of fear
o But more associated with use of political fear by non-state actors
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