PSC 2442 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Social Fact, Peacebuilding

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26 Mar 2020
September 6th, 2017: Constructivist and Organization Theory
There are types of anarchy: among enemies, among friends, among indifferents
Military tensions vs. immigration or economic tensions
Social relations among states matter, and can be changed
What creates “friends”?
Regime types, historical/cultural ties, functional ties (economic ties,
Anarchy maleable, can change relationships between states
ex) Germany and Japan post ww-2
IO implications
Lots of room to act in anarchy among friends and indifferents
IOs get lots of big jobs, ex) EU
IOs get job of turning enemies into friends (peace-building)
Anarchy often exists among friends which means much can be done across the world
through IOs
Trust not a big problem even if states can hurt each other
Social Facts
Shared ideas that shape reality and exercise control over people (ie handshakes)
Money is a social fact because it only has the value society has assigned to it
Rights only exist if we all think they exist, same with responsibilities
Where do shared ideas come from? Why do they become accepted as social
facts? What consequences do facts have and why? How do social facts change?
IO implications
Ability of IOs to create social facts is a big source of power
New kinds of actors (peacekeepers)
New kinds of activities (development)
New money (euro, SDRs)
New rules, rights, obligations
Generative or productive power
Organization theory
What makes IOs tick? What goes on inside?
Principal Agent Analysis
Principal is the actor with a job to be done
An agent is the actor doing a job for a principal
Problem: how to ensure agents will actually do what principals want
How to ensure IOs do what states/citizens what them to do?
Types of PA problems
Extended chains of delegations (reps for citizens, interests not aligned)
Info asymmetries (agents may know more than principals)
Conflict among principals, multiple/collective principals that don’t agree on what
to do
Shifting interests of principals (agent/org may not know what to do when
principals change their minds)
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