PSYC 1001 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Long-Term Memory, Mammillary Body, Procedural Knowledge

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8 Feb 2017
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Samuel Mohebban Psychology- Memory Week 10- Exam 3
Mnemonics
o Strategies and tricks for improving memory, such as the use of a verse or formula
o Way to reduce information by chunking it
Sensory Memory
o Storage is brief, fragile, and temporary
o Echoic (several seconds), iconic ¼ second
o Encoding is visual or auditory
o Has a filter (selective attention)
o Key process is encoding
o Key process is encoding (transduced from words, sounds, etc. into impulses)
o Forgetting occurs by interference and decay (more by decay)
o We forget things more because of interference
Short-term memory
o Limited capacity (5 to 9 chunks)
o 30 seconds or less
o Maintenance rehearsal (repetition of information)
o Elaborative rehearsal
o Key process is storage
o Forgetting via interference and decay
o Prefrontal lobes
o Meorys “cratch Pad
o Retains information only for up to about 30 seconds
o In short-term, the material is no longer an exact sensory image, but is an
encoding of one, such as a word or phrase
This material either transfers into long-term memory or decays and is lost
forever
o The Leaky Bucket
o If the uket did ot leak, it ould oerflo – it can only hold so many items
o Chunk = a meaningful unit of information; it may be composed of even smaller
units (one digit of a phone number, so the entire phone number is 7 chunks)
o STM a hold seeral huks at a tie
o Working Memory= in many models of memory, a cognitively complex form of
short-term memory that involves active mental processes that control retrieval
of info from long term memory and interpret that info appropriately for a given
task
o Involved in thought and intelligence
o Includes executive processes, (reading comprehension, following directions,
note-taking, playing bridge, learning new words)
o Hippocampus is involved because it allows us to take things from short term
memory to long term memory
Long-term memory
o Permanent store of memory
o Stored via associations
o Key process is retrieval
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