Intro to Sociology 1001 with Jennifer Bronson
Lecture 3 / 03 September 2013
Attendance was NOT taken on September 3
Karl Marx (1818-1893)
Economic forces shape societies; the ownership of the means of production was a
principle shaper in each epoch.
He used the “Base=Superstructure” argument.
(Relations of production, owners exploit workers, means of production, the things
you need to produce.)
*The base shapes the superstructure
*The superstructure maintains and legitimizes the base.
(Education, family, religion, politics, the media.)
The history of civilization is the history of class conflict.
In the (then) new industrial capitalist era this conflict is between the bourgeoisie
(owners) and the Proletariat (workers).
Our consciousness is a product of our social circumstances and much of what we believe
to be a reality is a reflection of our socially determined interests.
Workers must develop class-consciousness in order to free themselves.
Marx’s Phases of Human History:
We start with Feudalism.
Because of the Revolution, the rise of the bourgeoisie, we go to a Capitalist
Because of another revolution, the rise of the Proletariat, we go to a Dictatorship
of the Proletariat.
Because of the withering away of the state, we go to a Communist Utopia.
Types of Data
Primary Data- Data you collect yourself.
Secondary Data- Data someone else has already collected.
Longitudinal Data- Data collected over time.
Cross-Sectional Data- Data collected at one point in time.
Qualitative Data- Date that relies on words, observations, pictures or images.
Quantitative Data- Data that relies on statistical analysis. Hypothesis- An educated guess about the relationship between two different variables,
stated in testable form; tentative prediction.
Usually in the “If___, then___.” Format
Is this a Hypothesis:
o Government corruption is a leading cause of famine. Yes.
o Community voter drives will encourage higher voter turnouts. Yes.
o Good people go to Heaven when they die. No because it can’t be tested.
Variable – a measurable trait or characteristic that is