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George Washington University
SOC 1001
Jennifer Bronson

Intro to Sociology 1001 with Jennifer Bronson Lecture 3 / 03 September 2013 Attendance was NOT taken on September 3 Karl Marx (1818-1893) Economic forces shape societies; the ownership of the means of production was a principle shaper in each epoch.  He used the “Base=Superstructure” argument.  BASE (Relations of production, owners exploit workers, means of production, the things you need to produce.) *The base shapes the superstructure *The superstructure maintains and legitimizes the base. SUPERSTRUCTURE (Education, family, religion, politics, the media.) The history of civilization is the history of class conflict.  In the (then) new industrial capitalist era this conflict is between the bourgeoisie (owners) and the Proletariat (workers). Our consciousness is a product of our social circumstances and much of what we believe to be a reality is a reflection of our socially determined interests.  Workers must develop class-consciousness in order to free themselves. Marx’s Phases of Human History:  We start with Feudalism.  Because of the Revolution, the rise of the bourgeoisie, we go to a Capitalist Democracy.  Because of another revolution, the rise of the Proletariat, we go to a Dictatorship of the Proletariat.  Because of the withering away of the state, we go to a Communist Utopia. Types of Data Primary Data- Data you collect yourself. Secondary Data- Data someone else has already collected. Longitudinal Data- Data collected over time. Cross-Sectional Data- Data collected at one point in time. Qualitative Data- Date that relies on words, observations, pictures or images. Quantitative Data- Data that relies on statistical analysis. Hypothesis- An educated guess about the relationship between two different variables, stated in testable form; tentative prediction.  Usually in the “If___, then___.” Format  Is this a Hypothesis: o Government corruption is a leading cause of famine. Yes. o Community voter drives will encourage higher voter turnouts. Yes. o Good people go to Heaven when they die. No because it can’t be tested. Variable – a measurable trait or characteristic that is
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