Intro to Sociology 1001 with Jennifer Bronson
Lecture 4 / 05 September 2013
Attendance was NOT taken on September 5th.
Theoretical perspectives- The conceptual frameworks that sociologists use to
make sense of the world, they are used to explain and analyze various social
actions, social processes, and how social structures work.
Ways of looking at social phenomenon and their relationships to each other.
o Is restricting access to abortion a problem? Or is it the fact it’s available?
o Why is “white collar” crime different from other types of crime?
Theory and Methodology
The relationship between theories and reality
You start out with a Theory, because of deductions, you get a Hypothesis.
Because of operationalization you get World Observations. When you analyze
that you get Empirical Generalizations.
o Theory to Hypothesis to Observation to Confirmation and back again. An
example of someone who does this is Sherlock Holmes.
o Observation to Pattern to Tentative Hypothesis to Theory and back again.
An example of someone who does this is Dr. House.MD.
Levels of Theoretical Analysis
o Study of large scale and long-term social processes of organizations,
social structure, institutions and broad social patterns. This is the structure
perspective. It also provides the social context in which micro-level action
o Study of social interaction, human behavior is based on individual’s
interpretation of a situation and the meaning they give it, everyday life.
This is the action or individual perspective. Micro level acts can change
macro level structure MACROSCOPIC
O Society, fear, Culture, norms, S
B beaurocracy, and values. U
J and language. B
T Perspectives, beliefs C
I Patterns of the various facts of thT
V behavior, action, social construction I
E and interaction. of reality. V
o Functionalism (structural)
o Conflict Theory
o Interactionism (symbolic)
Society is a system composed of parts that work together to maintain a state of
If a social element exists and continues to persist through time and space, the