Intro to Criminal Justice 1003 with Martin Schwartz
Lecture 2 / 28 August 2013
Attendance WAS taken today.
The Formal Criminal Justice Process
It shows how offenders flow through the system and where they exit from the system.
A crime is reported.
Initial contact is made of the suspected offender.
An investigation occurs.
An arrest is made.
The person is taken into custody.
The person is charged with a crime.
The person goes before a Grand Jury OR has a Preliminary Hearing.
An arraignment is made.
Bail is set OR the person is sent to jail.
Plea bargaining takes place afterwards.
There is a trial.
The offender gets a sentence.
The offender is sent to jail, prison or let free.
The Criminal Justice Funnel
Out of every 1,000 crimes committed, 500 are reported while the other 500 are not.
Out of every 500 crimes reported, 100 are arrested and 400 are never found.
Out of the 100 arrested, 65 are adults and 35 are children under the age of 18.
- Of the 35 under 18, 5 go to juvenile hall, the rest are set free or get probation. Of the 65 adults only 40 are prosecuted.
Of the 40 adults who are prosecuted only 30 go to trial, the rest “disappear”.
Of the 30 who go to trial 1 gets acquitted, 2 are found guilty and 27 plead guilty.
Of the 30 adults, 29 get sentenced.
Of the 29 adults 21 go to jail or prison while the other 8 get probation.
With all that in mind, out of every 1,000 crimes committed 5 youth and 21 adults go to
jail. Which is 26/1,000 or 2.6%.
Flowchart Models: How are cases processed?
Issues: Who makes these decisions? Attrition occurs for different reasons. Only a
few cases, 2.6%, go all the way through the funnel
Criminal Justice “Non-System” or the Courthouse Workgroup
- Not integrated system; institutions and people with different powers and
- People do manage to work together, such as the prosecutors, defense attorneys
- The function is to streamline the process through extensive use of plea-
bargaining and other alternatives. The Criminal Justice Wedding Cake
Imagine a 4-tier wedding cake where the lowest tier is the largest and the next tier gets
smaller and smaller until it reaches the top. All types of crimes can fit into this cake as
Less Serious Felonies
As you can see in the picture the highest tier is also the smallest, meaning it has the least
crimes. Celebrated cases would be the Casey Anthony Trial, OJ Simpson’s trial or the
Zimmerman Trial. Next are the serious felonies. There a little more of these than there
are of the celebrated cases. They may