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Lecture 10

SPHR 2106 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Skeletal Muscle, Acetylcholine, Axon

Speech and Hearing Science
Course Code
SPHR 2106

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Brain: glial and nerve cells
Glial cell: create myelin in cell, protect nerve cells, cleanup CNS waste
Schwann cells: peripheral system
oligodendrocytes : CNS
Nerve cell communication:
Chemical component: to each other
Electrical component: message transmission, ions go in and out of semipermeable membrane
Neurons arranged into nerve
Arrangement of Neurons:
Cortex consist of cell bodies of neurons
Subcortical: nuclei ( cell bodies of neurons)
PNS: groupings of neurons are ganglion
Information flow from dendrites to terminal bouton
Dendrites: collectors of information
Presynaptic neuron: makes synapses, synapses release neurotransmitters, if neurotransmitters
are excitatory, generates action potential
Excitatory neurotransmitter released by postsynaptic neuron which allows gates to open allow
more positive ions to flow in causes depolarization, excitatory postsynaptic potential
At rest: inside more negative than outside
Depolarization: more positive inside compared to outside if neurotransmitters are positive
Terminal bouton: have vesicles containing neurotransmitter substance, released into synaptic
cleft and next neuron
Allows channels to open and more positively ions to flow in
Excitatory motor neuron: Causes depolarization
Inhibitory neuron transmitters: hyperpolarization, cause more negative ions into the cell
Inside of cell becomes more negative, harder to get to threshold
How do nerve cells work?
Resting potentials: when neurons are being a couch potato
Inside is more negative than outside (-70)
When neuron receives excitatory neurotransmitter, open gate to let in positive ions, inside is
more positive: depolarization and EPSP
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