AMST 2440 Lecture 23: New Immigration – New Cities

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American Studies
AMST 2440
Suliman Osman

New Immigration – New Cities • Annandale, VA From distance  looks like typical suburb Strip malls, chain stores --- Kunstler’s “geography of nowhere” Closer look - over 900 Korean-American owned businesses Kor-Am’s call it DC’s “Koreatown” New type of immigrant neighborhood –> now in suburbs Scholars call them “ethnoburbs” A Changing City Washington D.C historically  “black and white” southern town Few immigrants. In 1970, only 4% foreign-born But that is changing…. Mid 2000s, 18.5% foreign-born  over 1 million residents Half of pop. growth of Washington area in 1990s = new immigrants Washington DC in 2000 -- 7th most popular city for US immigrants. A Forgotten Event of the 1960s In 1965, Congress quietly passed Hart-Celler Act. Often forgotten – overshadowed by other 1960s events. But for cities today --- huge impact A Time Line of Immigration to American Cities th th 19 and early 20 C Immigrants • 1820s-1890s: “Old Immigrants” Mostly N. and W. Eur. (Mostly German states, British Isles/Ireland, and Scandinavia.) ~ 10 million • 1880’s-1920’s: “New Immigrants” Mostly S. and E. Europe Ex: Southern Italy, Slavic countries, Greece, E. Eur Jews ~10-15 million • Before restriction -- Asian immigration ~ 400,000 Chinese and 300,000 Japanese. Mostly West Coast. Rising Nativism – US Closes Doors • 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. • 1907-1908 “Gentlemen’s Agreement” halts Japanese imm. • 1911: “Dillingham Commission”  publishes nativist report blaming “new immigrants” from E. and S. Europe for crime, and other social and cultural problems th (Authors influenced by eugenics and other racist pseudo-science of early 20 C) Recommends restricting imm. from “unassimilable” E. and S. Europe (ex: Poland, Italy, Greece, Hungary) • 1924: National Origins Act –> Harsh imm. restricition. New quota system based on ‘existing pop.’ of US in 1890 83% of new visas - N and W. Eur. 15% -> E. and S. Europe 2% to the rest of the world. No restrictions on Western Hemisphere. But formation of Border Patrol US-Mexico border pre-1920s – basically non-existent, fluid Post-1924 – increasingly formalized, policed 1930’s -- 1950s: AN ERA OF INTERNAL MIGRATION • Immigration restriction  cities lose external supply of cheap labor • Replaced by internal Great Migration Rural American South Puerto Rico Appalachia US REOPENS ITS DO
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