New Immigration – New Cities
• Annandale, VA
From distance looks like typical suburb
Strip malls, chain stores --- Kunstler’s “geography of nowhere”
Closer look - over 900 Korean-American owned businesses
Kor-Am’s call it DC’s “Koreatown”
New type of immigrant neighborhood –> now in suburbs
Scholars call them “ethnoburbs”
A Changing City
Washington D.C historically “black and white” southern town
In 1970, only 4% foreign-born
But that is changing….
Mid 2000s, 18.5% foreign-born over 1 million residents
Half of pop. growth of Washington area in 1990s = new immigrants
Washington DC in 2000 -- 7th most popular city for US immigrants.
A Forgotten Event of the 1960s
In 1965, Congress quietly passed Hart-Celler Act.
Often forgotten – overshadowed by other 1960s events.
But for cities today --- huge impact A Time Line of Immigration to American Cities
19 and early 20 C Immigrants
• 1820s-1890s: “Old Immigrants”
Mostly N. and W. Eur.
(Mostly German states, British Isles/Ireland, and Scandinavia.)
~ 10 million
• 1880’s-1920’s: “New Immigrants”
Mostly S. and E. Europe
Ex: Southern Italy, Slavic countries, Greece, E. Eur Jews
• Before restriction -- Asian immigration
~ 400,000 Chinese and 300,000 Japanese.
Mostly West Coast.
Rising Nativism – US Closes Doors
• 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act.
• 1907-1908 “Gentlemen’s Agreement” halts Japanese imm.
• 1911: “Dillingham Commission” publishes nativist report blaming “new
immigrants” from E. and S. Europe for
crime, and other social and cultural
(Authors influenced by eugenics and other racist pseudo-science of early 20 C)
Recommends restricting imm. from “unassimilable” E. and S. Europe (ex: Poland,
Italy, Greece, Hungary)
• 1924: National Origins Act –> Harsh imm. restricition.
New quota system based on ‘existing pop.’ of US in 1890
83% of new visas - N and W. Eur.
15% -> E. and S. Europe
2% to the rest of the world. No restrictions on Western Hemisphere.
But formation of Border Patrol
US-Mexico border pre-1920s – basically non-existent, fluid
Post-1924 – increasingly formalized, policed
1930’s -- 1950s: AN ERA OF INTERNAL MIGRATION
• Immigration restriction cities lose external supply of cheap labor
• Replaced by internal Great Migration
Rural American South
US REOPENS ITS DO