6 century BCE – Celtic in some sense, all of Gaul, reaching into Czechoslovakia
Around 400 Bce motion around Alps into northern part of Italian peninsula
Romans had 2 terms for people they called Gauls and recognized as Celtic. One of them was
Gallia Transalpina (Gallia on the other side of the Alps) and from about 400 BCE on, they write
about Gallia Cisalpina. Described by historian Livy, about 59 BCE – 17 CE. Writing about
something he is setting back in 400 BCE, so writing about something 400 years earlier, not an
Overpopulation existed in Gaul, and for Livy, overpopulation is result of climate, economy being too
good in the reign of a particular Celtic king, and they need to expand, so they form colony Gallia
All of the story Livy is telling us is received as tradition because the Tarquinius he says is emperor
of Rome does not have a verifiable factual basis. But we do know that Gauls moved over Alps into
What archeologists and historians now think is that it probably happened around 400 BCE,
although Livy placed it back in 600 BCE. Consensus is that Pliny was probably closer to truth when
he said that Gauls came for wine, olive oil, figs, etc in Italy. More likely to have come first as raiders
rather than as settlers.
Cunliffe suggests that warrior elites would have sustained themselves and status in society by
leading raids which showed off prowess and resulted in goods from the raidee, which could then be
distributed among followers, enhancing own status (because Celts measure selves by how many
companions and followers they have)
Lots of raiding activity followed by settlement
We do have historical record that in 390 BCE, city of Rome was sacked by Gauls, so perceived at
this time as barbarians. Gradually Celtic people settling and sticking to northern part of peninsula.
Relations with Roman republic were not good in latter part of 3 century BCE.
In Battle of Telamon (225 BCE), the allied Celtic peoples of northern Italy defeated by Roman army,
so their situation in Italian peninsula changed, no longer a dominant, distinguishable people, blend
in with other northern peoples like Etruscans, Italians, etc. Cease to have distinctive identity. Trace
left is archeological, linguistic
They also moved Eastward, move into Moravia and Austria, western part of Hungary and Slovakia.
Archeological evidence, burials of warriors, but no historical written record of this particular
movement. Why? Not relevant to the Roman world. Not happening in a world where people are
writing history (or anything at all, for the most part).
Distinction between history and prehistory – history has written record, prehistory doesn’t, and they
don’t occur at same time in all parts of world because people acquire and begin to use writing at
different points in time
Archeology confirms that this is very much a warrior culture
Caesar in 1 century distinguishes between three classes: druids, equites (