Celts across Alps, sort of integrated into Roman culture
Celt, Gaul, Gallatian – terms not used about people of Briton
Pytheas of Massilia (Marseille), Geographia c.a. 150 CE.
Calls Ireland “Ierne”
Ptolemy – Geographia, ca 120 CE
Ireland referred to as Iouernia
Ptolemy responsible for first map of Ireland. Not very accurate shape, though.
The classical world, Roman empire, knew that Ireland was out there at westernmost edge of world
that they knew
Tacitus in Agricola 98 CE calls it Hibernia.
Hibernia seems to come out of Greek Iouernia.
May come from constructible Celtic form QCeltic *Iweriu.
From this form *Iweriu, we can extrapolate Ir Eriu. In early Irish writing, Ir Eriu is what they called
Ireland. Official name now is Eire.
Down to 5 century CE we know very little because on the edge of the world. What happens in 5 th
century that brings it out of prehistory? Christianity comes to Ireland – this is how Rome actually
comes to Ireland, not Roman empire directly, just Roman Christianity. Earliest writings that have
survived of Ireland are by St. Patrick.
Some archaeological finds indicate some trade going on between Romanized Briton and eastern
central part of Ireland. Roman goods and coins found near Dublin.
We know there was trade between them in slaves, because we know that is how St. Patrick went to
Ireland – he was himself a Romanized Briton in a family that had been long Romanized. Patrick
was captured by slave raiders from Ireland and taken back to Ireland.
The fact that Roman writers used names that seem to have come from the names the Irish used
themselves for the island indicates that some kind of talking was possible. Romans got to know
some version of what Irish called Ireland.
Cunliffe – 97 and 98
When we talk about Celticity, we operate simultaneously on three different temporal planes: 18 th
mid 19 centuries as moment in which science of historical comparative linguistics came inth being
But, also thinking about not quite identifiable moment in ancient past that those 19