Took years to clear rubble, get economies back on feet, clear all the bombed buildings and
Rubble became a theme of art – a whole genre of film called Rubble Films. First film directed in
Germany after the war, 1946, The Murderers are Among Us
Great deal of state planning – allied occupied forces and early governments began to direct
economy from above
Devastated private businesses that needed direction from above
John Maynard Keynes – Keynesianism became the consensus economic ideology of early postwar
period – emphasis on strong govt spending, pumping economy with money, state planning and
Undercurrent of dissent, but never that much traction in early postwar
Friedrich Hayek – dissenting voice, not very popular, some prestige by 1980s with ppl like Margaret
Thatcher and neoconservative theorists in US
Europe so strongly Keynesian that it was the same kind of govt that had organized the war efforts.
War demanded mobilization of economic forces with great state direction, and that remained in
place in peacetime
Nazis had been first and foremost ppl who believed in state planning, nationalizing business,
directing industry from above
Took a long time, even with govt direction, for countries to gain their footing.
Beginning in late 1940s, Germany went through economic miracle, Wunderjahre, powerful
economic growth that only ended in 1970s with oil crisis
Today most economies remain influenced by great degree of social welfare, uncontested even by
States and individuals struggled to understand what had happened with the holocaust? Planned
genocide by civilized, industrialized society
Had to determine what the nature of the crime was – genocide was a neologism, a new term
introduced into legal and political debate by Polish Jewish lawyer
11 December 1946, UN GA affirmed “genocide is a crime under international law which the civilized
Racism and racial ideologies of purification remained strong and pronounced
AntiSemitism actually continued and there were antiSemitic riots, particularly when imprisoned
Jews tried to return to their former homes, which were now occupied by somebody else.
Resentment on both sides.
Allies had to use some of the political prisoner camps and concentration camps as camps for
displaced persons themselves. Displaced Person camps took over.
Huge migration all over Europe