Class Notes (1,100,000)
US (480,000)
Harvard (800)
Lecture 10

SCILIVSY 12 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Biogeography, Pelvis, Essentialism


Department
General Education
Course Code
SCILIVSY 12
Professor
Professor Berry
Lecture
10

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 2 pages of the document.
!"#$%&'#()*+),-&%.-$)/0$01&'#(
A,#C,#T,#G
Bases#used#in#DNA
A,#C,#U,#G
Bases#used#in#RNA
99%#of#all#human#genes#are#present#in#the#mouse,#from#which#we#diverse#
about#75#million#years#ago
Deep#Homology#(derived#from#a#common#ancestor)
Congruence#of#two#different#approaches#to#mapping#the#history#of#life
Order#of#evolution:#fish#>#amphibians#>#reptiles#>#mammals
INTERMEDIATE#FORMS#DOES#NOT#IMPLY#HALFWAY#FORMS
Fossils#and#Phylogeny
Ex.#The#Whale#Pelvis:#preset#only#because#whales#are#descended#
from#four-legged#ancestors
§
A#functionless#trait#that#is#only#present#by#virtue#of#descent#from#an#
ancestor#in#which#it#was#functional
Vestigial#Organs
Whale#caught#with#poorly#formed#hind#limbs#(1920)
Results#because#of#mutation#or#because#of#developmental#
anomalies
§
An#ancestral#trait#that#reappears#in#a#descendant#taxon
Atavism
A#panda's#thumb:#not#actually#a#true#thumb#but#rather#a#modified#wrist#
bone
Lousy#Design
Species#A#living#in#location#X#gives#rise#to#Species#B#through#
descent#with#modification.#Species#B#must#be#located#close#to#
location#X
Due#to#evolution
§
Analysis#of#the#geographical#distribution#of#animals#and#plants#shows#that#
closely#related#species#tend#to#be#found#in#contiguous#(overlapping)#
regions
Biogeography
20310(&)4'&5)6#7'8'1-&'#(
Variation:#determines#the#competition's#winners
§
Heritability:#the#next#generation#is#enriched#for#favorable#variants
§
Competition
Led#to#food/resource#shortages#>#increased#competition
Due#to#1977#drought
§
In#a#single#generation,#natural#selection#has#shifted#the#mean#bill#size#of#
the#population#(finches)
Natural#selection#is#the#inevitable#result#of#"superfecundity"
Paley#negation:#design#in#nature#is#accomplished#by#a#blind,#purposeless#
process,#rather#than#by#a#purposeful#designer
The#focus#has#shifted#from#the#ideal#to#the#population
§
950)2-.4'(:;-$$-10)&50#.+)is#a#departure#from#traditional#essentialist#
views#of#nature#(WHAT#IS#THIS?#2'"'(0)1.0-&'#(<<<=.#Instead#of#seeing#
variation#as#a#mere#deviation#from#an#ideal,#Darwin#elevated#it#to#a#new#
status#as#the#raw#material#of#evolutionary#change
Darwin-Wallace#Revolution
,-&%.-$)/0$01&'#(
Lecture'#10
Friday,#October#28,#2016
1:27#PM
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version