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Lecture 4

SCILIVSY 12 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Georges Cuvier, James Hutton, James Ussher


Department
General Education
Course Code
SCILIVSY 12
Professor
Professor Berry
Lecture
4

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Law$of$Linear$Progression:$!"#"$%&
Law$of$original$horizontality:$'(%)*"+,-./0)
Collelction$of$data$was$relatively$impressive$for$the$time$period
COLLECTED$HOW?
Calculated$creation$occurred$in$4004$BC:$$1"2/+,3++4/$
Introduced$Darwin$to$field$of$geology
Darwin's$friend$and$popularized$Hutton's$ideas:$54"$*/+,!6/** (geologist)
Law$of$inheritance$of$acquired$characteristics:$ !"#"$%&
Calculated$earth$to$be$75,000$years$old$by$measuring$the$cooling$of$iron$balls:$
7/)$8/+,!/,5*/$%;,5)2<./,=/,>9??)0
Did$not$believe$in$extinction
Expected$Lewis$and$Clark$to$find$mammoths$on$their$expedition:$@4)2"+,
1/??/$+)0
There$is$uniformity$in$action$today$all$the$way$back$to$the$beginning$of$
species
Uniformitarianism:$1"2/+,A9..)0
Discovery$of$faunal$succession$and$use$for$relative$ geological$dating: B(**("2,
-2(.4
Catastrophe$happens$causing$extinction,$then$everything$is$reborn
Catastrophism:$7/)$8/+,59:(/$
Which$layers$of$fossil$are$more$recent$(younger$on$top,$older$towards$the$
bottom)
Law$of$superposition:$'(%)*"+,-./0)
Parasites/pathogens
§
Within$species
§
Other$species
§
Catastrophe
§
Climate
§
Successful$reproduction
§
Space
§
Isolation$vs.$Open$environments
§
Prey$vs.$predators
§
What$struggles?
Main$theme:$The$Struggle$for$Existence
Biotic$vs.$Abiotic$Factors$that$influence$survival
How$the$above$factors$would$affect$each
Artificial$Selection$vs.$Natural$Selection
Avoids$alignment$of$boom/bust$cycle$of$its$predators
Cicadas:$Cycle$of$emerging$only$on$PRIME$NUMBER$years
Attempting$to$force$a$new$species$into$a$complex$system$forces$a$species$
out
Wedge$Metaphor
???$(pg.$74)
Tangled$Bank$Metaphor
Chapter$3:
Natural$selection:$the$preservation$of$favorable$variations$that$are$maintained$
Males'$ability$to$attract/win$female$and$reproduce
Sexual$selection:$male$to$male$stronger$driver$of$natural$selection$compared$to$
male$to$female$(Darwin)
Inbreeding$vs.$outbreeding
Negative$impact$of$intercrossing$according$to$Darwin:$if$a$species$is$
improving,$intercrossing$can$bring$in$non-favorable$traits
Darwin$believed$that$the$negatives$were$far$outweighed$by$the$positives$
when$it$comes$to$intercrossing
Creates$an$organism$that’s$created$for$that$specific$environment$
§
Isolation$can$make$a$species$very$quickly$(divergence)
Intercrossing:$mating$with$other$members$of$the$same$species
Wedge$theory$-- new$species$require$the$extinction$of$existing$species$
When$a$new$species$emerges,$the$ones$that$are$closely$related$that$
occupy$the$same$niche$and$require$the$same$food$are$the$most$
threatened
The$extremes$of$species$divergence$are$the$ones$to$usually$survive
Extinction
Chapter$4:
Chapter$One:$artificial$selection$works$in$domestic$species,$used$pigeons$(hugely$
diverse$species$and$can$track$ancestor)
Chapter$Two:$variation$vs.$species,$difficulty$of$Darwin$and$others$to$identify$key$
differences
Chapter$Three:
Chapter$Four:
!"#$%&'()(*+,)-,./0
Tuesday,$ September$ 20,$2016
10:01$AM
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