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Lecture 4

# SCILIVSY 12 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Georges Cuvier, James Hutton, James Ussher

Department
General Education
Course Code
SCILIVSY 12
Professor
Professor Berry
Lecture
4

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Law\$of\$Linear\$Progression:\$!"#"\$%&
â€¢
Law\$of\$original\$horizontality:\$'(%)*"+,-./0)
â€¢
Collelction\$of\$data\$was\$relatively\$impressive\$for\$the\$time\$period
â—‹
COLLECTED\$HOW?
â—‹
Calculated\$creation\$occurred\$in\$4004\$BC:\$\$1"2/+,3++4/\$
â€¢
Introduced\$Darwin\$to\$field\$of\$geology
â—‹
Darwin's\$friend\$and\$popularized\$Hutton's\$ideas:\$54"\$*/+,!6/** (geologist)
â€¢
â€¢
Law\$of\$inheritance\$of\$acquired\$characteristics:\$ !"#"\$%&
â€¢
Calculated\$earth\$to\$be\$75,000\$years\$old\$by\$measuring\$the\$cooling\$of\$iron\$balls:\$
7/)\$8/+,!/,5*/\$%;,5)2<./,=/,>9??)0
â€¢
Did\$not\$believe\$in\$extinction
â—‹
Expected\$Lewis\$and\$Clark\$to\$find\$mammoths\$on\$their\$expedition:\$@4)2"+,
1/??/\$+)0
â€¢
There\$is\$uniformity\$in\$action\$today\$all\$the\$way\$back\$to\$the\$beginning\$of\$
species
â—‹
Uniformitarianism:\$1"2/+,A9..)0
â€¢
Discovery\$of\$faunal\$succession\$and\$use\$for\$relative\$ geological\$dating: B(**("2,
-2(.4
â€¢
Catastrophe\$happens\$causing\$extinction,\$then\$everything\$is\$reborn
â—‹
Catastrophism:\$7/)\$8/+,59:(/\$
â€¢
Which\$layers\$of\$fossil\$are\$more\$recent\$(younger\$on\$top,\$older\$towards\$the\$
bottom)
â—‹
Law\$of\$superposition:\$'(%)*"+,-./0)
â€¢
Parasites/pathogens
Â§
Within\$species
Â§
Other\$species
Â§
Catastrophe
Â§
Climate
Â§
Successful\$reproduction
Â§
Space
Â§
Isolation\$vs.\$Open\$environments
Â§
Prey\$vs.\$predators
Â§
What\$struggles?
â—‹
Main\$theme:\$The\$Struggle\$for\$Existence
â€¢
Biotic\$vs.\$Abiotic\$Factors\$that\$influence\$survivalâ€¢
How\$the\$above\$factors\$would\$affect\$each
â—‹
Artificial\$Selection\$vs.\$Natural\$Selectionâ€¢
Avoids\$alignment\$of\$boom/bust\$cycle\$of\$its\$predators
â—‹
Attempting\$to\$force\$a\$new\$species\$into\$a\$complex\$system\$forces\$a\$species\$
out
â—‹
Wedge\$Metaphorâ€¢
???\$(pg.\$74)
â—‹
Tangled\$Bank\$Metaphorâ€¢
Chapter\$3:
Natural\$selection:\$the\$preservation\$of\$favorable\$variations\$that\$are\$maintained\$â€¢
Males'\$ability\$to\$attract/win\$female\$and\$reproduce
â—‹
Sexual\$selection:\$male\$to\$male\$stronger\$driver\$of\$natural\$selection\$compared\$to\$
male\$to\$female\$(Darwin)
â€¢
Inbreeding\$vs.\$outbreeding
â—‹
Negative\$impact\$of\$intercrossing\$according\$to\$Darwin:\$if\$a\$species\$is\$
improving,\$intercrossing\$can\$bring\$in\$non-favorable\$traits
â—‹
Darwin\$believed\$that\$the\$negatives\$were\$far\$outweighed\$by\$the\$positives\$
when\$it\$comes\$to\$intercrossing
â—‹
Creates\$an\$organism\$thatâ€™s\$created\$for\$that\$specific\$environment\$
Â§
Isolation\$can\$make\$a\$species\$very\$quickly\$(divergence)
â—‹
Intercrossing:\$mating\$with\$other\$members\$of\$the\$same\$speciesâ€¢
Wedge\$theory\$-- new\$species\$require\$the\$extinction\$of\$existing\$species\$
â—‹
When\$a\$new\$species\$emerges,\$the\$ones\$that\$are\$closely\$related\$that\$
occupy\$the\$same\$niche\$and\$require\$the\$same\$food\$are\$the\$most\$
threatened
â—‹
The\$extremes\$of\$species\$divergence\$are\$the\$ones\$to\$usually\$survive
â—‹
Extinctionâ€¢
Chapter\$4:
Chapter\$One:\$artificial\$selection\$works\$in\$domestic\$species,\$used\$pigeons\$(hugely\$
diverse\$species\$and\$can\$track\$ancestor)
Chapter\$Two:\$variation\$vs.\$species,\$difficulty\$of\$Darwin\$and\$others\$to\$identify\$key\$
differences
Chapter\$Three:
Chapter\$Four:
!"#\$%&'()(*+,)-,./0
Tuesday,\$ September\$ 20,\$2016
10:01\$AM