SCILIVSY 19 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Spurious Relationship, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, Dietary Reference Intake

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26 Jun 2018
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SLS 19 Global Health and Nutrition Notes:
Lecture 1: Monday Jan 25th:
gapminder.org has a lot of resources for the class
TEXTBOOK and COURSEPACK… check syllabus
Topics for this lecture
oOverview of nutrition and global health
oGlobal burden of disease
oSustainable development goals
oWhat is a healthy diet?
Is child mortality increasing or decreasing?
oDecreasing (rate has gone down by almost a quarter)
Which region of the world has the greatest proportion of child undernutrition?
oSouth Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa
Nutrition measures stunts in growth, measured by healthy kids (Americans)
World Health Organization measured
Iron deficiency affects the most people globally
Are we getting better or worse in overnutrition/undernutrition?
oAs of 2015, there are more over nourished people in the world
Vitamin A deficiency and zinc deficiency are responsible for how many deaths a year globally?
o
Which country spends the greatest proportion of their gross national income on development
assistance?
oSweden
Each dollar invested in salt iodization returns how many dollars in benefits?
oProbably $30
1. Demographic transition: young to old
2. Nutrition transition: undernutrition to obesity
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3. Epidemiologic transition: infectious diseases (diarrhea, TB, malaria…) to chronic diseases
(heart disease, diabetes…)
10 and 11 billion people will be the stable population of the world
20%-50% of the world’s population is under 20 years old
Life expectancy is usually increased by decrease in infant mortality
World Causes of Death
oCoronary Heart Disease 12.3%
o
o
Child mortality in Africa is largest
Healthy Diet:
oDon’t smoke or abuse alcohol, do exercise…….
Lecture 2: Monday Feb 1st: Vitamins and Minerals
Overview of micronutrients:
oVitamins and minerals
Key micronutrient issues in the context of nutrition and global health
Micronutrients are required by the human body in small amounts
oObtained through diet
oDo not provide energy
oEssential for life
Vitamins (fat soluble and water soluble)
Minerals
Fat soluble vitamins
oAbsorption and metabolism requires daily intake of fat
Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common
oVitamin A and Zinc
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Lack of vitamins and minerals usually have no visible warning signs and people who suffer may
not be aware
o1/3 people suffer from hidden hunger
oWomen and children from low income groups are most affected
Vitamin A
o1 of 2 vitamins that can be toxic to humans in large amounts
oRefers to a family of compounds including retinal or retinol (animal form), and beta
carotene (plant form, 2 retinol molecules)
oKey role in development of epithelial cells
oKey role in vision
oResponsible for nearly 600,000 deaths each year
oLeading cause of preventable blindness
Vitamin D
Lost track for about an hour
Lecture 3: Monday Feb 8th: Macronutrients
Macronutrients:
oCarbohydrates 4 cal per gram
C arbon, hydrogen, oxygen 1:2:1
Largest source of energy in diet 60 percent
Simple and complex carbs
oFats 9 cal per g
oProteins 4 cal per gram
Kilocalorie
Energy expenditure
oResting energy expenditure 65-75 percent
oThermal effect of exercise 15-20 percent
oThermal effect of food 7-10 percent
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