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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 – Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding.docx

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Department
Life Sciences
Course Code
Life Sciences 1a
Professor
Robert Lue

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Sept 5 – Atomic Structure and Chemical Bonding ­ ionic bonding results from electrostatic attraction, large difference in  electronegativity ­ lattice­like structure, can interact with adjacent Na and Cl atoms ­ covalent bonds, share valence electrons ­ valence bond theory: all atoms are going to share valence electrons with other  atoms to complete outer most shell ­ Lewis dot structures only represent valence electrons  ­ Making bonds has to be more stable (less energy)  ­ Positive charges on both sides (increase effective nuclear charge) on the valence  electron ­ Even lower energy, orbital distorted a bit  ­ Atoms fill outermost shell through bonding (single, double, triple)  ­ Nuclei move closer together when you have more bonds/electrons  ­ C makes 4 bonds, N makes 3 bonds, O makes 2 bonds, H makes 1 bond  ­ Atoms containing “lone pairs” of electrons facilitate intermolecular interactions  rather than intracellular ­ Stable molecules containing either 3 bonds or 5 bonds to phosphorous exist ­ Sulfur can make either 2,4, of 6 bonds in stable molecules ­ Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR)   ▯electrons as far apart as   possible ­ Applies to all molecules involved in bonding, including ones with oxygen and  nitrogen like acetone the universal solvent  ­ Many different representations of molecules, drawing conventions for organic  molecules ­ Optimal bond length, energy decreases as the internuclear distance approaches  bond length  ­ When pushed too close together, nuclei highly repulsive ­ Bond dissociation energy: heat required to break a bond
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