OEB 52 2-6.docx

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Organismic and Evolutionary Biology
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Organismic and Evolutionary Biology OEB 52
Elena Kramer

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Lecture 4 Mitosis or meiosis can have mistakes, leading to a tetraploid (nonreductive) product of mitosis or a  nonreductive meiosis. With plants, errors from mitosis in particular can slip into germ line because  they recruit germ line from soma. More times mitosis happens, more chances for mistakes. In  meiosis, not an issue with recruiting cells from soma, but miotic errors become an issue if use a lot  of self­fertilization.  Autopolyploidy Karyotype of parent species (2n = 6) ▯ (Meiotic error) ▯ creates 2 unreduced gametes with 6  chromosomes ▯ (self fertilization) ▯ zygote (autopolyploid, 4n = 12, tetraploid) ▯ offspring with  polyploidy karyotypes may be viable and self­fertile. This one is effectively a new species – can’t  cross back to parent. Tend to be larger, can harbor more genetic diversity, so this can be desirable, so many  domesticated species are autopolyploids Ferns seem to be very prone to this, like 128n Allopo
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