PSY 034 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Lee Iacocca, Thematic Apperception Test, Theory X And Theory Y

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27 Jul 2016
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Lecture 8 – Leadership
Leadership
Defining leadership is difficult, there is no specific definition because it changes over time
Different definitions and theories over time
Best definition for us - It is a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals
to achieve a common goal (Northhouse)
Are leaders born or made? – a little of both, performance skills count
Trait Theory
Certain individuals have special innate characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from
non-leaders
Resides in select people
Restricted to those with inborn talent, ex: charisma
Born with a desire to lead or not to lead 17%-30% - if you don't have the desire then you’re
probably okay with following someone else
Leader Emergence
Characteristics of leader vs non-leader or born leader vs made leader
Traits:
Intelligence
Openness to experience
Extraversion
Conscientiousness
Emotional stability
High self monitoring – adapt to the situation
Leadership emergence seems to be able across the life-span some people emerge as leaders
and some don't
Chan and Drasgrow (2001) motivation to lead has three aspects:
Affect identity motivation – you wanna take the lead and be in charge
Non-calculative motivation – want to be the leader for a personal gain, like their status or
social rank in community, promotion
Social normative motivation motivated by a sense of duty, they feel it’s the right feel to
do
Example: Harry Gray, Ray Tower, Lee Iacocca (started car financing, got a leadership
position)
These people were innovative and had a vision what you have to look for an employee
with leadership traits
Leader Performance
Idea that leaders who perform well possess certain characteristics that poorly performing
leaders don't
Relationship between leader performance and personal characteristics:
Traits:
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Intelligence – practical and theorical
Charisma
Dominance
Energy
Extraversion
Openness to experience
Agreeableness
Emotional stability
Self-monitoring
Needs
Types of Needs
Power – leaders who want to be in control, influence others
Achievement – leaders who are goal-oriented
Affiliation – leaders who like to be around people
McClelland and Burnham (1976) and McClelland and Boyatzis (1982):
Leadership Motive Pattern
High need for power
Lower need for affiliation nao se pode agradar a todos, people who are people
pleaser are usually not leaders
Internal promotion don't work because people ficam se achando os fodoes depois
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) people are shown a picture and asked to
describe it and the answers are analyzed by trained psychologist so they can rate if the
leaders are high in power, achievement or affiliation
Stahl and Harrell (1982) Job Choice Exercise (JCE) – questions of job description
with varying degrees of power, achievement and affiliation, statistical analysis is done
and pah results
Tasks vs person orientation
Ohio State Studies (early 1950), Theory X and Theory Y (1960s) and Managerial
Grid
Differences in extent to which leaders are task vs person oriented, came to the
same conclusion that leaders can be either: task oriented or person oriented
Impoverished (MG) are indifferent, low on person and task orientation - worst
Team (MG) high on person and task orientation
Middle-of-the-Road (MG) medio em tudo
Person-Oriented Leaders – Consideration (OS), Theory Y, Country Club (MG)
Act in a warm, supportive manner and show concern for the employees
Believe employees are intrinsically motivated
Task-Oriented Leaders – Initiating structure (OS), Theory X, Task Centered (MG)
Set goals and give orders
Believe employees are lazy and extrinsically motivated
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