PSY 034 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Inter-Parliamentary Union, Glass Ceiling, Gender Role

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Published on 27 Jul 2016
Lecture 10 – Leadership
Some Statistics
Women outnumber men in higher education (bachelor degree or higher 72.4%,
associate degree 70.6%, some college 62.3%, >50% doctorates, nearly half of
professional degrees)
47%- Represent almost half of the U.S. labor force
Are underrepresented in organizations and political system:
Hold only 14.4% of highest titles in the Fortune 500
Represent less than 3% of Fortune 500 CEOs (Catalyst, 2011b)
Hold only 16.9% of Fortune 500 board seats
78 of the 435 seats in the U.S. Congress = 17.9%; Senate 20%
Women of color occupy just 24 seats (Center for Women and Politics, 2011)
World average of women’s representation in national legislatures or parliaments is
U.S. ranked 70th out of 188 countries (Inter- Parliamentary Union, March 2009)
Only 6.1% High ranking U.S. women military officers (U.S. Dept. of Defense)
(Catalyst, 2013, Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012)
Gender and leadership
Researchers ignored issues related to gender and leadership until 1970s because
women were considered “incompetent”
Can women lead?
Changed by women in leadership position
Differences between women and men in leadership style
Underrepresentation of women in top managerial positions
Gender roles and Leadership
Research studies indicate:
Women were devaluated when they worked in male-dominated environments and
when the evaluators were men
Women were evaluated unfavorably when they used a directive or autocratic style
(give orders, don't take employees participation, autoritario) when compared to men
with autocratic style
Both leaders (men and women) evaluated favorably when they used a democratic
leadership style
Women were not found to lead in a more interpersonally oriented and less task
oriented manner than men in organization
Also found that women use a more participative or democratic style than men – just
preference wise
Women’s styles tend to be more transformational than men’s
Women tend to engage in more contingent reward behaviors than men
Overall men and women were equally effective leaders
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