PSY 034 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: No. 13 Group Raf, Fortune 1000, Social Distance

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27 Jul 2016
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Lecture 12 & 13 – Group Behavior, Teams and Conflict
Social Loafing
Ways to reduce loafing:
Evaluate employees on individual contributions to group
Posting performance results
Explaining link between individual effort and group performance
Giving rewards
Individual Dominance
By the group leader
By a group member
Coined by Janis (1972)
Can occur when group is
Insulated from outsiders
Believes it is infallible
Morally superior to its adversaries
Under pressure to conform
Happens when groups has gatekeepers who keep information from other groups
Has a leader who promotes a favorite solution
No disagreement
Can be reduced by:
Leader shouldn't give their opinion from beginning
Promote open discussion and encourage member participation
Groups should be divided into subgroups or smaller groups
Devil’s advocate
Group vs Individual performance
Individuals (nominal groups)
Number and quality
Make a decision more quickly
Simple problems – individuals working on simple tasks are more effective
Interacting groups
More creative
Are more risky, nao vou me fuder sozinho ex: burglary
Complex problems
Known as quality circles in 1970s
About 72% Fortune 1000 companies use teams
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Work teams
A collection of three or more individuals who interact intensively to provide
organizational product, plan, decision or service (Devine et al.)
Improve performance depending on the situation
Factors needed to be considered before calling a group of individuals a team
(Donnelllon, 1996)
Identification they should be identifying with the team but not other group
Interdependence – collaborate with each other, their tasks have to be related and they
must dependent on each other
Power differentiation equalize the power, no one is really at the top or bottom,
everyone is open to idea
Social distance – be friendly to build a relationship and increase the social distance
Negotiation process – try to negotiate and reach a solution for problems
Types of Teams
Donnellon (1996) categorized teams into 5 types:
Other factors:
Cohen and Bailey (1997) classified teams into 4 types:
Work teams could be working onn one project can be people from the same
Group employees who manage themselves, make work related decisions,
and solve work-related problems
Produce goods, provide service, increase the quality and cost-effectiveness
crews group of highly specialized experts, work in teams of their own,
ex: pilots
Parallel Teams:
Cross functional teams – people from different department
Clear purpose, receive support from each functional area, build trust
Project Teams:
Formed to produce one-time output
Management Teams:
Coordinate, manage, advise, and direct employees and teams
Provide general direction and assistance to other teams
Team Development
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Tuckman (1965) Theory: 4 development phases:
Team members get to know one another
Everyone is on their good behavior – first impression has to be good
Group clarifies its mission
Disagreement and frustration set in
Group members work at easing tension
Acceptance of team leader
Goals get accomplished
How Teams Develop
Gersick (1988) Punctuated Equilibrium Theory
Teams do not go through set stages
Basic method of formation
Develop direction and strategy during first meeting
Follow this direction for a period of time
Revise their strategy about half way through the life of the team
Change direction eventually
Why Teams Don't Always Work
The team is not a team – does not have the main features of a team, ex: interdependence
Excessive meeting requirements
Meet too infrequently or frequently, which is waste of time
Limit topics to be discussed and meet only when entire team is needed to contribute
“Stretch” a meeting can reduce motivation and enthusiasm of a team
Lack of empowerment – decreases productivity
Teams not given sufficient authority to conduct their business
Job wont be done correctly, teams moving too fast will overstep boundaries such that
other parts of the organization will be affected
Lack of skill – decreases productivity
Team members lack either skills or expertise to solve a problem
Solution – training, take courses
Distrust to the team process
No/less success because management doesn't trust the concept of teams
Managers unwilling to give up any authority managers should, but doesn't support
the idea of working in teams
Not only team members should support the idea of teams, but also the managers
(want to be the boss at all times)
Unclear objectives
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